An Examination Of The Impact Of Media Enlightenment Campaign On The Awareness Of Hepatitis In Ikeja Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

An Examination Of The Impact Of Media Enlightenment Campaign On The Awareness Of Hepatitis In Ikeja Metropolis


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis. The study was carried out to find out whether public enlightenment campaigns about hepatitis B are being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis, find out the media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, find out whether the media has increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, and identify the factors mitigating against effective pubic health communication about hepatitis B through mass media.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Ikeja Metropolis. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that public enlightenment campaign about hepatitis B is being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors mitigating against effective pubic health communication about hepatitis B through the media includes: lack of adequate government support for the activities in the area of health campaigns, high cost of mobilizing the populace for positive health action, lack of articulated communication policies, and corruption in government circles affects the effectiveness of mass media health broadcasting. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should sponsor different media enlightenment campaign to prevent the transmission Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and the use of vaccine as a major alternative for prevention. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The wellbeing of the society is an important gateway to a nation’s wealth. According to Okpoko (2013 p.122), “health is essential for the satisfaction of human needs and to improve the quality of life”. The illness of some individuals in a society, would possibly affect the smooth running of such society. When transmission of infection is not prevented, it kills just like the silent dreadful killer disease “Hepatitis B”.

According to the World Health Organization (2012), Hepatitis B is the world’s most common liver infection, which is caused by a DNA-virus; the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is capable of causing chronic infection and considered highly contagious; 50-100 times more infectious than HIV, and is transmitted between people through blood, semen, vaginal fluids and mucous membranes. Hepatitis B is a potential life threatening liver infection; a global health problem that has put people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is considered as a serious health problem worldwide.

In preventing widespread of Hepatitis B virus, adequate enlightenment campaign is needed to inform, educate and protect the masses. Mass media campaign can raise awareness of an issue, enhance knowledge and beliefs, and reinforce existing attitude (Mustapha 2008 cited in Okpoko 2013). Health communication campaigns are arguably the most utilised and effective method for spreading public health messages, especially in endorsing disease prevention (Hepatitis B) and general health promotion and wellness. As Yamueh (2005) rightly put it, “without good health, families, individuals, communities and nations cannot hope to achieve their social and economic goals”. Hence the study seeks to investigate the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Hepatitis B enlightenment is meant to sensitize, inform and warn the public about an existing dreadful and killer disease, taking precautionary measure to avoid its infection or transmission. In some society, media campaigns are at times not given necessary attention by the masses, as the public either reacts positively or negatively to media campaigns depending on the quality or powerful influence of the content.

The mass media enlightenment function could be a cause for concern, considering the way the public perceives the message communicated and knowledge acquired from the media, and as such, identified problems associated with public enlightenment campaign and awareness of hepatitis B are, the level of awareness and its impact in reducing the disease. Thus the problem this study investigates the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis.

Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. Find out whether public enlightenment campaigns about hepatitis B are being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis.
  2. Find out the media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis.
  3. Find out whether the media has increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis.
  4. Identify the factors mitigating against effective public health communication about hepatitis B through mass media.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is public enlightenment campaign about hepatitis B being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis?
  2. What are the media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis.
  3. Has the media increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis.
  4. What are the factors mitigating against effective public health communication about hepatitis B through the media?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The media does not broadcast any significant enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis.
  • Ha: The media does broadcast any significant enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study would have both empirical and practical significance. Empirically, it will contribute to the articulation of the media campaign role in shaping public health behavior towards Hepatitis. Practically the study will serve as a document for government and non-governmental organizations, policy makers and media campaigns planners in the field of Hepatitis. More so, it will enable the media to create more content on hepatitis and other related diseases so as to enlighten the public on how to adjust the lifestyles that could lead to hepatitis.

Additionally, the result of the stud will serve as a data base to mass communication researchers who may be interested in learning the global fight on Hepatitis and future researchers, who may embarking on similar research in future.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study borders on the the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis. Specifically the study is set to find out whether public enlightenment campaigns about hepatitis B are being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis, find out the media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, find out whether the media has increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, and identify the factors mitigating against effective pubic health communication about hepatitis B through mass media.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following factors poses to be a limitation during the course of this research.

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Respondent Attitude

The majority of respondents failed to collect the questionnaires, and those who do collect them pay close attention to filling out and returning them, while others do not return theirs at all. Others were less accommodating and may have provided untrustworthy information because they were afraid of being exposed, despite the researcher’s promise that all information would be treated with the utmost secrecy and only for education purposes.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Hepatitis:

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It is commonly the result of a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol.

Health Communication:

This is the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decision that enhance health.

Mass Media:

This has been described as the organized means for communicating openly and at a distance, to many receivers within a short space of time.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms.

The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, empirical review, and chapter summary. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration.

The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings onthe impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of media enlightenment campaign on the awareness of hepatitis in Ikeja Metropolis. The study specifically was aimed to find out whether public enlightenment campaigns about hepatitis B are being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis, find out the media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, find out whether the media has increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis, and identify the factors mitigating against effective pubic health communication about hepatitis B through mass media.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Ikeja Metropolis.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Public enlightenment campaign about hepatitis B is being broadcasted through the mass media in Ikeja Metropolis.
  2. The media channels which broadcast public health messages about hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis includes: radio, television, newspaper, etc.
  3. The media has increased public awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B in Ikeja Metropolis.
  4. The factors mitigating against effective pubic health communication about hepatitis B through the media includes: lack of adequate government support for the activities in the area of health campaigns, high cost of mobilizing the populace for positive health action, lack of articulated communication policies, and corruption in government circles affects the effectiveness of mass media health broadcasting.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government should sponsor different media enlightenment campaign to prevent the transmission Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and the use of vaccine as a major alternative for prevention.
  2. The medical practitioners should make it compulsory for the test of hepatitis B Virus before commencement of treatment for patients and should be carried out for free or at an affordable price.
  3. The World Health Organisation (WHO) should recruit people, train and orientate them on Hepatitis B, and engage them in a door-to-door enlightenment and awareness.
  4. Awareness cannot be left alone in the hands of the government and health workers, individuals should also be ready to save lives by promoting the campaign of hepatitis B virus in the society.

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