National Development And Governance In Nigeria
Development is critical and essential to the sustenance and growth of any nation. A country is classified as developed when is able to provide qualitative life for her citizenry. Nigeria in the last fifty years has been battling with the problems of development in spite of huge human, material and natural resources in her possession. This study seeks to examine national development and governance in the country. The study proposes that a significant nexus exists between national development and governance in the country. The study adopted both primary and secondary data and a survey method of analysis was adopted. The research hypotheses were tested using the chi-square statistical tool. The population of the study comprises of two hundred (200) respondents who were randomly selected by the researcher. The study recommends that the masses should hold the government responsible (accountable) for their stewardship to them; Nigerians should no longer be silent on poor government policies. People need to hold their destinies in their hands and make government to be alive to its constitutional responsibility of maintaining law and order, security, and provision of enabling environment as well as infrastructural facilities. All these should actually yield dividends of democracy to the people.
1.1 Background of the Study
The pride of any government is the attainment of higher value level of any development in such away that its citizens would derive natural attachment to governance. However, for a nation to be in a phase of development three must be some pre-requisites, which include socio-political and economic stability.
The gap between the developed and the developing countries is the static or narrow but is continually widening. A large majority of worlds’ population in developing world lives in a state of poverty. The problem of urban population, rural stagnation, unemployment and growing inequalities continue to face less developed countries which Nigeria belong. Hopes of accelerated development are difficult to realize. This glooming situation is of great concern to stack holders and they concern citizenry. Nigeria has not been able to engender meaningful development inspite of her huge resources endowment. This has greatly affected her quest to improved quality of life of her citizens. Poverty, unemployment and starvation still pervade the nook and cranny of the country.
Development is essential and critical to growth and sustenance of any country. In order to successfully enhance meaningful development, effective strategies must be evolved. Here we examine the trend of national development in Nigeria, and provides a workable method of approach to national development. The paper is further divide as follows. First, we introduce the study and clarify some key concepts. Next, we look briefly at some key concepts. Next we look briefly at some attempted development strategies in Nigeria and the problems of National development; then we examine briefly models of development across Asian continent. Finally, the concluding aspect provides recommendations based on the study of Asian model of development as a viable option for Nigeria national development aspirations.
1.2 Statement of Problem
One, basic infrastructure and social service which are taken for granted in many countries are pitiably bad or weak in Nigeria.
Two, the factors and conditions of production, particularly land, capital, infrastructure and services are very difficult to access thus leading to de-industrialization and the failure of manufacturing. This means that economic facilities are weak.
Three, the educational system apart from being a poor social service, lacks quality, paper orientation and quality.
Four, the health care delivery system at primary, secondary and tertiary level destroys than saves life. The phenomenon of bourgeois medicine has substantially commodified health care.
Five, agriculture, the highest contributor the Nigeria’s Gross Domestic product (GDP) at 40 percent and the highest employer of labour at 60 percent is under developed through neglect and poor policy administration.
Six, ethics and values which are the moral guide and glue of society have crashed to a level of negative transcendentalism, normlessness and criminality. The reward punishment system is weak and there is high moral decadence.
Seven, peace, social and protective security are perennially threatened at the societal and individual levels, due to a combination of identifiable social, economic, and political, factors, one of which is elite manipulation of socio-cultural differences or violence induced by politicians. Another is poor policing.
Eight, solid minerals which exist in abundance have been neglected or abandoned. That is to say prior to the discovery of solid minerals sustained the Nigerian economy.
Nine, there is phenomenal corruption at the level of politics and governance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study seeks to achieve the following aims:
- To determine the causes of slow and backward development in the country.
- To determine the attributes of good governance in the country.
- To examine the relationship that exists between national development and good governance.
1.4 Research Questions
The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:
- What are the causes of the slow and backward development in the country?
- What are the attributes of good governance in the country?
- What is the relationship that exists between national development and good governance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study developed for testing the following hypotheses:
- H0: There is no slow and backward development in the country.
H1: There is a slow and backward development in the country.
- H0: There is no significant relationship that exists between national development and governance in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship that exists between national development and governance in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
National development, development, developing, society, governance, development plan.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study proves to be of immense importance firstly, to education. This is because it will bring much awareness to scholars as they carry out intense research for national benefit.
Secondly, the study will profit the policy makers as it will provide facts and figures which will serve as evidence to make a good and profitable policies which will enhance the speed for national development.
Also, the study will point out attributes of good governance and will examine its effects on national development, this fact will benefit the knowledge seekers and in general the reading public.
1.8 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine national development and governance in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining national development and governance in Nigeria.
This study was undertaken to examine national development and governance in Nigeria. The study was introduced with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
Good governance and leadership is fundamental if development and progress is to be attained in any country. Leadership commitment and good governance is fundamental to the survival and progress of any nation including Nigeria. And it is the responsibility of all to ensure and demand for good leadership and effective governance. Nigeria needs a leader who is incorruptible with integrity, focus, commitment, determination, selflessness, discipline, and enterprising personality in order to attain all round development. Ikubaje (2014) is of the opinion that the way out of poor governance and ineffective anti-corruption policies in Africa is a collective will of both the political leadership as well as the citizens.
Accountability should be given its proper place in Nigeria. The leaders should be made accountable by publicly declaring what they have been able to achieve in terms of performance as well as how much was expended in every sector on a yearly basis and auditors with integrity should be made to verify the claims in order to ascertain the genuineness of the claims. This will in no small measure lessen the level of corruption, misappropriation and embezzlement of funds and enhance the leadership roles of our Nigerian leaders thereby bringing in probity. The judicial arm of government should be made or empowered to function effectively so as to ensure that corrupt leaders are brought to book and made to face necessary sanctions and penalties which would serve as deterrents to others. Elections should be made to be free and fair and not rigged. When citizens are allowed to choose their leaders, the leaders would in turn have a sense of responsibility that they owe the people for good governance.
Furthermore, Nigerians should stop celebrating corrupt officers, celebration of corrupt officers is legalizing corruption as if „it does not matter‟, as if corruption is „right or acceptable‟. Corrupt officers should not be accepted into the society when they have left offices or jail in anyway, this will make their stay in the society uncomfortable and it will serve as deterrent to others who will find themselves in governance subsequently. Finally, the masses should hold the government responsible (accountable) for their stewardship to them; Nigerians should no longer be silent on poor government policies. People need to hold their destinies in their hands and make government to be alive to its constitutional responsibility of maintaining law and order, security, and provision of enabling environment as well as infrastructural facilities. All these should actually yield dividends of democracy to the people.
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