Motivational Strategies For Effective Teaching And Learning In Secondary School (A Case Study Of Onitsha South Secondary School)
The study is an investigation into the motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary school. It provides a conceptual and theoretical appraisal of motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning and profers a case study of Onitsha south secondary school
In Nigeria, the low status of teachers, coupled with the ineffectiveness, low commitment, the display of negative attitudes by some teachers, the poor academic performance of pupils/students in schools, as well as the falling standard of education, calls for adequate motivation of teachers. Against this backdrop, this study examines the strategies for motivating teachers for improved performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
The The teacher is central in the teaching-learning process, being the facilitator, giver of knowledge, information, values, and skills for a child. The strategic position of teachers thus makes it imperative for them to be accorded priority and attention. In Nigeria, low status of teachers, has been prevalent, which is having serious implications on their performance, quality of their teaching, their attitudes to work/behavior in schools, the academic performance of the pupils/students, and ultimately, the standard of education. This research thus, considers the need for motivation of teachers as imperative in Nigeria. In the research, various strategies for teachers such as the provision of incentives, regular promotion, prompt payment of salaries, involvement in decision making among others, are highlighted and discussed, for the attention of the stakeholders in education, the government, school administrator. It is however hopeful that the adoption and implementation of these strategies will ensure effective teaching in our schools, and a turnaround in the standard of education
The concept ‘motivation’ takes its root from the Latin word ‘movere’, which means ‘to move‘. There is no universal definition for it, having been defined in different ways in literature. , motivation is the inner drive that pushes individual towards an action, for the purpose of achieving the target objectives.
It is defined as the determination of the nature and locus of the forces inducing the degree of readiness. It is also defined as the energizing force that induces and maintains behaviour. From these definitions and others still in literature, motivation can be described as man’s driving force towards an action or the condition that makes individual to carry out an action.
Motivators are things, situations, and conditions that encourage individual to perform better in an organization, which can be tangible or intangible. Tangible motivators are the physical objects/materials such as gifts and money. Intangible motivators are non-visible objects, things or conditions, such as promotion, commendation (written or verbal), achievement, regular payment of salaries, participation in decision making. The issue of motivator is relative, depending on individual’s priority in an organization.
The concept of individual differences does come into focus while discussing motivator. It is worthy of note that what can motivate A to perform better in an organization might vary from that of B. Some individuals can be motivated by money and gifts. Money is thus believed not to be an end in itself but a means to an end. To some individuals, no amount of money can push them towards an improved performance.
Every organization has objectives to achieve. The level of achievement of such objectives will dictate how the organization is fairing. It is not a gainsaying that teachers occupy unique position in educational institution. they are the fulcrum on which the lever of educational system rests. Teachers need to be motivated so that the schools and educational system as a whole can enjoy their fullest contribution. Even though what can motivate a teacher for effectiveness in a school varies from one teacher to another. Every organisation whether public or private often have designed goals and objectives aimed to realize. For every goal and objective to be realized, there has to be motivational mechanisms expected to enhance the productivity for desirable result. The negative effect on the morale of teachers in addition to a lack of sense of job security, and multiple factors diminishing teacher motivation which include low salaries, lack of support from administration, increment of salaries, giving of awards, granting loans to staff, frequent training of staff to educative workshop, staff consultative forum to mention but a few.Teachers’ have proven to be the primary variable affecting students performance (Kane, Rockoff&Staiger, 2006).
The No child left Behind Act of 2008 (NCLB) made states and local districts accountable for all actions that produce low academic performance. The level of teacher engagement has strong implication not only for professional growth and the quality of instruction but also for students’ academic achievement. When teachers perform and carry out their specific job roles and duties, students produce and achieve positive results (Tucker etal; 2005). Low teacher morale and poor motivation has become a major problem that has affected the performance of senior secondary school students especially in Onitsha
In other words, a person joins an organization to satisfy his needs and therefore would be motivated to work willingly and enthusiastically if he sees his organization as helping him to satisfy his needs.However, human needs are complex and varying and so are the processes of motivating them. Thus, motivation has faced a lot of thought as to how it operates in an organization. Many proposals or theories thereupon made overtime have ranged from the work of Fredrick Taylor to human relative movement, to Abraham Maslow, to Fredrick Herzberg, to Expectancy theory and to Douglas McGregor’s theory X and Y. an appropriate mix of these motivational theories coupled with an understanding of employees needs will help to solve the motivational problems in secondary schools in Onitsha.A manager or management should realize that every action he takes in the organization stimulates a reaction in employees (staffs). He should realize as well that a person comes to work to get both the intrinsic and self-fulfillment, and intrinsic rewards like promotions, pay and other conditions of service. All these are some of the motivational strategies that would be borne in mind to stimulate employees to action. Increasing the pay package alone would not be enough to stimulate employees.Consequently, the importance of motivation cannot be neglected. The research conducted by William James in the late 1800s indicated this; He found that hourly employees could keep their jobs by using approximately 20 to 30 percent of their ability. James also found that highly motivated employees work at approximately 80 to 90 percent of their ability.In other words, highly motivated employees can bring about substantial decrease in problems such as absenteeism, turnover, tiredness, strikes and grievances.This research work therefore, wants to use this study to explore the staff motivational strategies in Onitsha and hence see what the staff in this organization from their jobs and how best their expectations can be met with a view to motivating them to higher performance bearing in mind that their organization is service oriented.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The fallen standard of education in the secondary school depicted in increase failure of students in final examinations and decline in moral standards are pointers that much still has to done to in our secondary school education especially as regards the motivation of the teachers. The research intends to investigate the motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools with a case study of Onitsha south secondary schools
1.3 Research Question
In carrying out this research work, the research, puts forward the following questions to guide the investigation:-
- What is the role of motivation in enhancing productivity of teachers in senior secondary schools in Onitsha.
- What are the consequences of poor motivation of teachers on academic performance of students.
- What are the factors that ensure motivation stability in teachers in senior secondary school in Onitsha.
- What are the necessary steps to enhance teachers motivation by the Principal, Government and the Society?
1.4 Objective of the Study
This research work is specially aimed at:-
- Examining factors responsible for poor motivation of teachers in senior secondary school in Onitsha south.
- Examining the effect of poor motivation on teachers productivity.
- Examining the effecting of poor motivation of teachers on students academic performance.
- To highlight on the consequences of failure to maintain motivational policy in senior secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area.
- Finally to proffer solutions on how to stabilize motivational policy of teacher of senior secondary school in Onitsha South Local Government
1.5 Significance of the Study
To determine measures imperative for elevating the standard of teaching and learning in the secondary school
The study shall provide a source of information on motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
- H0: The quality of teaching and learning in Onitsha south is low
H1: The quality of teaching and learning in Onitsha south is high
- H0: The challenges to effective teaching and learning is high
H1: The challenges to effective teaching and learning is low
- H0: The impact of motivational strategies on teaching and learning in Onitsha south is low
H1: The impact of motivational strategies on teaching and learning in Onitsha south is high
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study provides an appraisal of motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools with a case study of Onitsha south secondary school
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The word motivator motivating means the reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way.
Simply means a way of behaving.
The efficiency with which things are produced.
An organized group with particular purposes.
A person engaged to work and to receive pay for the job done.
The act of managing or the management of an organization
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of staff motivational strategies in secondary schools in Onitsha south.
This study was on motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Onitsha south. Four objectives were raised. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Onitsha south. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals,vice principals,senior teachers and junior teachers was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and chi-square statistics.
Finally the study proved that motivation energizes people to contribute their best in service. It improves the working contributions which make staff to be productive, committed, creative, successful and impactful. These staff is motivated so as to be job satisfied which may eventually lead to improvement in their outstanding performance.
The following recommendations were made:
- The government should promptly pay staff their salaries, allowances and promote them as and when it is due.
- Workshops and seminars should be organized for staff in different subject areas at least once in a term.
- The government, school administrators and communities should device means of rewarding the best staff of the term and the year as the case may be and also assure that job security exist for staff by not dismissing staff anyhow. Fair and equal treatment should be given to then irrespective of their gender.
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