Motivational Needs For Public Primary School Teachers In Nigeria
Teacher motivation naturally has to do teacher’s desire in participation in the education process. Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing that goes in influencing individual’s behaviours and performance at work. The study addressed the motivational needs of teacher’s the factors responsible for lack of motivational of the teacher’s and strategies for improving the motivational needs, these needs include from society, good school building and entitlement. Furthermore, poor payment of salary and entitlement, poor school building conditions, lack of respect from the society are some of the factors responsible for lack of teacher’s motivation. However restoration of teachers past glory will go a long way in motivating teachers, salaries must be paid as at when due and teaching facilities and to enhance teachers productivity.
Background of the Study
Motivation is the term used to describe the processes, both instructive and rational which people seek to satisfy their basic derives, perceived needs and personal goal which trigger human behaviour (Cole 1885) it is indeed the force that energize behaviour. The task before the researcher is to know what actually motivates teachers to work hard and use those factors to proffer solutions in order to get the best from the teachers or allow the teachers to contribute effectively towards the accomplishment of the set goal and to satisfy their own needs in the process.
An employer should be aware that the employees have different needs, different desires for responsibility, different level of knowledge and skills and different passive and are manipulated, motivated and controlled by the government as the knows what the citizens need and provide some of these needs. Needs may also be as a result of behaviour for instance a person’s needs for accomplishment may be made stringer by the satisfaction he derives from achieving a desired goal or it may be dulled by failure (William 1993).
Teachers education is one of the mainstays of democracy and national stability in the country because teachers in any country are said to be the most reliable industry that can put the country on lead the load to self – reliance because teacher’s are the producers of the manpower needs of the nation which will in turn provide the needed skills and labour of every sectors, example industrial, technological, health, scientific and social which form the core of the nations self – reliance.
The teacher is a vital factor to be reckon with in any educational system. Education is a must in the life of a nation that aspires for greatness. Good education must be qualitative and functional. A qualitative and functional education relies largely on a core of devoted, knowledgeable, competent and well – trained teachers who are exposed to real life situation State Primary Education Board (SPEB, 1994).
The continuance and survival of our educational system at all levels depends largely on the quality and quantity of professional teachers. This can only be achieved by meeting the motivational needs of teachers, need identification refers to what you require to enable you to do your work more effectively. But to say this is easier than doing it for various reasons.
Firstly, your own needs as an individual are forever changing as you grow older and more and more matured. Secondly the nature of your job, whether as a teacher or head continues to evolve, partly because of the results of the development of your own country, but also because of new inventions and the changing relationship of the human race to planet earth (Sisimayi, 1993)
According to Best (1984) “Education was seen as the necessary instrument immediately and essentially for the consolidation of the independence for securing the new nation against neocolonialism and for making workable the newly established self – government in a multi – ethic society” In view of this, mass education at least to the level of literacy was also viewed by the Nigeria leaders to be the basis to create a proper foundation for a democratic government. Up to date the desire to use education for national building has been very compelling, and so much as the faith in education that the school of the socialization but also for other social functions and for economic growth and development In attempt to achieve these goods, Universal Primary Education (UPE) and the Universal Basic Education (UBE) were introduced nationwide 1970 and 2000 respectively, although before these times, these were seen and practiced in some parts of the country like the former western Nigeria under the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Today, Nigeria has witnessed a phenomenal expansion at all levels of her education.
Even though, the laudable motives seemed to justify the very high cost of the expanded education programme, especially of the late 1970s the schools in Nigeria are not really effective engines for the resulted into very disappointing performance at the school level, and as the basis of further academic achievements, the situation actually tends towards threatening the future of the nation. This situation is so because the able leaders that will be produced for the future cannot be illiterate and ignorantly trained.
The ugly situation has been causing a lot of concern and fears to various government quarters educationist, philanthropist, parents and the generality of the Public. Kolo, (2000) concluded that “This declining trend has been causing a lot of concern and fears in of various governmental quarters since the report concluded that the nation is heading for the breeding of generations illiterate Nigerians. The failure of Nigerian schools is thus indicating that the health and well – being of the nation’s society may be in jeopardy”.
Statement of the Problem
The problem for the study is that primary school teachers are not properly motivated because the authorities and the society as well as the system do not in any way seem to meet their needs, morally, economically, psychologically, socially to mention just a few, hence, that is why you see teachers are not given the due respect in the society but even pupils that they teach, because of their low level of economic power in the society that worship material rather than dignity. They are most at times treated and considered as nothing in the eyes of the society. It is in the light of the above that this research intends to investigate their motivational needs so that at the end of the study, solutions will be provided or recommended that can give the teacher his rightful place in the society.
Ironically, it can be seen or observed that teachers at all levels are relegated to the background and teaching itself which hitherto was humble, respected and highly motivated profession has become a job and thus becoming a dumping ground that is not respected by even those in the teaching profession talk less of others. While those in charge of ensuring adequate monitoring supervision and evaluation as well as reward of the system goes to the hard working staff and punishment go to the truants are nonetheless not doing their work because they too are not motivated. Worst hit by this act of share neglect are the primary school teachers who most of the time are teaching under a very pathetic and unfavorable atmosphere that portrays nothing but the ghost shadow of this noble profession.
Objectives of the Study
The general objectives of the study are to investigate into the motivational needs of primary school teachers in Kaduna North L.G.A, the Specific objectives of the study are:
- To find out the motivational needs of primary school teachers in Kaduna North L.G.A.
- To identify the factors responsible for the lack of motivation to teachers.
- To identify the strategies for improving motivation amongst primary school teachers.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that when this research is completed, the findings will be significant not only to the teachers, the local government authority, the pupils themselves but even the society. To the teachers, it is hoped that the findings will be helpful to them by identifying their motivational needs which when accomplished will bring back their lost glory and make them more productive and that means a step in the right direction in producing a virile society.
- To the authority, the recommendations can assist them in improving in their manpower planning and development as well as be responsive to the yearnings of their citizens and that is what democracy is all about.
- To the pupils they stand to gain most because they will get qualitative education and be responsible leaders of tomorrow.
- To the society they stand to benefit from a highly productive and efficient teaching staff as well as disciplined, dedicated and productive youths which is an asset to any society.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study will be delimited only to primary school teachers in the public primary schools in Kaduna North Local Government Area. This is because the public teachers are the ones that are directly close to the general public and the ones most neglected.
It is virtually true that research work in any academic atmosphere is usually associated with certain problems and difficulties; hence this research work like any other research has experience a number of problems. The limitation imposed on this study is the inability of the researcher to reach out to all the population because of the number and location of the respondents who are scattered all over the Local Government Area. Other Limitations include the methods of answering the questionnaire by wrong and unqualified people, delay for a very long period of time before the completion of the questionnaires.
Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations and Suggestion
In this chapter, the summary of the study is presented under the following: Re – statement of the problem, description of the procedure, summary of the findings, conclusions recommendations and suggestions for further research.
Restatement of the Problems
Available literature suggests that teachers are not properly motivated because the authorities and the society as well as the system do not in ways it seems to meet their needs. They are most at times streamed and considered as nothing in the eyes of the society. Special salary scale for teachers, provision of medical facilities and restoration of their past glory by the members of the villages and parents. In this era of materialism and display of wealth in the face of widespread poverty, teachers needs have to be looked into for an effective viable school system.
Description of Procedure Used
The purpose of the study was to investigate into the motivational needs primary school teachers.
The study consisted of 30 items structured questionnaire design to seek the view of the respondents. Section A of the instrument contained 10 questionnaires items, sought for some ways of identifying the motivational needs of teachers. Section B contained 10 questionnaires items, formed the factors. Responsible for lack of teacher’s motivation. Section C contained 10 questionnaire items, formed the strategies for improving the motivational needs of teachers. The population of the study is 160 teachers drawn from the six sample public primary school in Kaduna North Local Government Area the collected data were analyzed using table and figures, means statistic was used to determined the degree of response 3.0 is the mid point for decision making (Co-efficient).
The study focused on the motivational needs of teachers, objectives of the study were drawn in order to find out the motivational needs of teachers, to identify the factors responsible for the lack of motivation to teachers, and to identify the strategies for improving motivation amongst teachers. Questionnaires were used to collect information. To facilitate the study, related literature on the study were used to back up the authenticity of the information. Data collected from the respondents were analyzed and deduced that teachers have various motivational needs such as prompt payment, adequacy of salary and entitlement, promotional on time, respect from the community, good school building and facilities, provision of loan etc.
Adequate supervision by authorities concerned, participation in workshops vacation course and seminar.
The survey presented information that indicates that money serves as the major motivating factor, and the issues of promotion is very important to majority of respondents. They seem to be open to restoration of their past glory by the society. The non – financial incentives are provision of transport facilities.
Based on the Findings several recommendations were offered for consideration.
The government should therefore determine the level of needs of their teachers and adopt relevant motivational strategies for creating coordinated work environment that will meet the need structure of the workforce. In this regard physiological need could simply be met by monetary incentives and other means such as life assurance scheme, and government policy can be met through social interaction in work or primary school environment.
The performance of teachers in a primary school will improve if:
- There salaries and allowances are paid regularly and on time
- They have a feeling of job security
- They are supplied with all the basic resources required to teach.
- There is holding of regular consultations with them.
- The school is made to be a good place to work in
- There are opportunities for promotion and personal development.
- Better ways of discipline of erring teachers should be adopted
- The societies cherished and respect the profession to restore their past glory.
- A rewarding system for hardworking teachers should be adopted
- Their should be adequate supervision by authorities concerned.
- The Local Government Authorities should pay the expenses of teachers that are to participate in a workshop, vacation courses and seminars.
- They re consulted when there are changes to be made in the school system.
- They should be a leader with a listening ear.
- They are to be treated fairly
Suggestions for Further Research
Although this research is limited to Kaduna North, similar type of research could be conducted in other Local Government Areas as well as other states of the federation.
An integral research for all the states of the federation could be conducted to sum up the motivational need of teachers; this will enables the federal, state and local government to tackle the motivational needs of teachers all over the country.
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