Motivation And Teachers Job Performance In Public Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Motivation And Teachers Job Performance In Public Primary Schools


Abstract


The study examines the relationship between motivation and teacherā€™s job performance in Alimosho Local Government Area. The study was guided by four research questions and four hypotheses. Relevant literature on the variables of the study were reviewed. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The sample comprises 100 public primary school teachers in Alimosho Local Government Area. A researcher constructed instrument tagged ā€œMotivation and Teachers job performanceā€ questionnaire was used for data collection.

Data obtained was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient to test the stated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that motivation is an important role for teachers because it helps to achieve the target in an efficient way. Therefore, teacher motivation is very important because it improves the skills and knowledge of teachers because it directly influences the performance. Motivation is an input to work and job performance is an output from this motivation.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Motivation is of enormous importance with regard to enhancing performance and commitment in any organization. Motivation and performance are very important factors in terms of organization success and achievements. Motivation plays an important role in the organization because it increases the productivity of employees and the goals can be achieved in an efficient way. The behaviour of employees can be change through motivation in any organization. From situation to situation, the level of motivation differs with in an individual (Robbins, Judge, and Sanghi, 2005). Motivation also takes part in an important role for teachers because it helps to achieve the target in an efficient way. Teacher motivation is very important because it improves the skills and knowledge of teachers because it directly influences their performance (Mustafa, and Othman, 2010).The level of motivation and satisfaction of the teachers has a positive effect on their job. The source of the high motivation of the teachers includes opportunities to use special abilities, secure future and the chance to earn good money. If in schools, the teachers do not have sufficient motivation then they are less competent which directly influence the students and the education system.

The relevance of motivation and job performance are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, centre competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and centre competencies occur when one feels effective in oneā€™s behaviour. In other words, professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success and performance (Filak & Sheldon, 2003). The above factors are closely similar to efficacy, and, of course, it is well known that many teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck, 1999). In addition, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. While almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs in life, he or she constantly agitates for need satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job to meet teachersā€™ needs and improve their job or teaching performance.

In recent years references have been appearing in literature regarding series of motivational practices that are dubbed on high performance, high commitment or innovation and are said to help institutions to achieve significant improvement in performance. The aim of motivation is to exert high commitment among teachers to improve in performance. For institution such as Teaching Service Commission to increase performance, it should have highly committed teachers with right attitude toward work (Bame, 1975). Globally, employers are not just interested in people turning up for work, it is their performance at work that the employer pays wages and salaries for because the effort that employees put in their work will obviously affect the level of quality output they attain, an effort is related to the motivation of employees (Bame, 1975). Teachers occupy such a central and vital position in any educational system that their attitudes and commitment have been of paramount interest not only to educational authorities and other stakeholders but also to many researchers (Mensah, 2009).

Teachers are needed in developing countries such as Nigeria but due to poor and unattractive remuneration some professional teachers have left the classrooms to seek for greener pastures elsewhere. However, it is assumed that teachersā€™ agitations and demands are beyond the resources of the Ministry of Education or the government. As a result, the government in Nigeria and the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) are in a constant stand-off over the increase in salaries, benefits, and improvements in working conditions of teachers. The federal and state governments have argued that the present economic realities in the country cannot sustain the demanded increase in salaries, benefits, and improvements in working conditions. Specifically, they argue that teachersā€™ demands are beyond the government resources.

Another problem is the governmentā€™s position concerning the job performance of the teachers; they accuse the teachers of negligence, laziness, purposeful lethargy, and lack of dedication and zeal to work. They further argue that teachersā€™ level of efficiency and effectiveness does not necessitate the constant request for salary increase, incentives and better working conditions. While teachers on their part argue that the existing salary structure, benefits and working conditions do not satisfy their basic needs in as much as other sectors of the economy have bigger salary structure, better motivation and enhanced working conditions. They feel Nigeriaā€™s economy is not properly balanced, hence, their demands.

Teachers are expected to render a very high job performance, and the Ministry of Education is always curious regarding the job performance of its teachers. Also, the Ministry of Education demands a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hard work and commitment from its teachers (Ubom& Joshua, 2004). Similarly, the roles and contexts of educationsā€™ motivational methods and tools cannot be underemphasized because high motivation enhances productivity which is naturally in the interests of all educational systems (Ololube 2005).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers in Nigeria have expressed a lot of dissatisfaction about the lack of human resource development, poor working conditions, poor remuneration and poor human relations that exist in schools. This has resulted in high teacher turnover coupled with poor results in Senior High Schools due to lack of commitment towards work. Some newly recruited teachers stay at post for barely one year. The operating conditions of service appear to fall short teachers expectation manifesting in resignations, vacation of post, non ā€“resumption at post after teachers leave of absence and study leave.

The general mood of those remaining is not encouraging as they exhibit other forms of withdrawal behaviour such as absenteeism, lateness and passive job behaviour. Unfortunately, in spite of the importance and complexity of these issues, there is very limited good quality literature has been published on them ( Bennel 2004). This research focus on the above mentioned factors. The researcher set out to throw more light on factors influencing teacher commitment to teaching so that management of education institutions can do something to motivate teachers to improve their level of performance.


1.3 Research Objectives

The major objectives of this study are to examine teacherā€™s motivation and job performance. Specifically, it is to:

  1. Determine the relationship between motivation and job performance of teachers in selected Primary Schools in Alimosho Local Government.
  2. Identify the factors of motivation that affects teacherā€™s job performance in selected Primary Schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  3. Investigate teachersā€™ motivational level and job performance.
  4. Identify social and economic conditions militating against staff motivation and job performance of teachers in selected Primary Schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following were the research questions used as a guide for the study:

  1. How does teacherā€™s motivation affects their job performance?
  2. What motivational factors influence job performance of teachers?
  3. To what extent does a teacherā€™s motivational level influence their job performance?
  4. To what extent does social and economic conditions militating against teacherā€™s motivation and job performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guided the study:

  • H1: There is no significant relationship between teacherā€™s motivation and their job performance.
  • H2: There is no significant relationship between teacherā€™s motivational factors and their job performance.
  • H3: There are differences in teacherā€™s motivational levels and job performance across individual demographics.
  • H4: There is no significant difference in social and economic conditions militating against teachersā€™ motivation and job performance.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study covered public primary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos where teachersā€™ motivation and its relationship with job performance.


1.7 Significance of the Study

The significance of this research is that it will help to identify the importance of motivation that has strong impact on the productivity and performance of teachers in our primary schools.This study will help to improve the teacherā€™s performance by motivational factors in order to enhance the educational system. Identifying motivational factors, social and work related factors influencing teacherā€™s job performance will inform major stake holders of institutions such as the Ministry of Education, Teaching Service Commission and Nigerian Government in formulating policies geared toward addressing job performance and high staff turnover in our Education Service. This will help in reducing the teacherā€™s dissatisfaction and boost their morale to make them more committed to their job. It is also hoped that this study would encourage more interest in research and pave the way for an in- depth study of the problems on motivation and job performance on a wider dimension than has been pursued in this research.


1.8 Operational Definitions of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally as follows:

Motivation:

An element which includes teachers to put in his/her best in performing his/hers duties.

Teacher motivation:

In this study, it refers to all those inner striving conditions, including the wishes, desires and urges to stimulate the interest in a learning activity.

Job performance:

Any set of activities or behaviours that increased teacher efficacy, high quality teaching, improved studentā€™s achievement and added to school improvement.

Welfare:

In this study, it refers to the general health, happiness and safety of teachers.

Morale:

It refers to a personā€™s mental state that is exhibited by assurance, control and motivation to perform a task.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study. The recommendations are proposed as a means of motivation of teachers as well as increasing their performance at work. Summary and conclusions on the other hand, involve salient issues found out in the study.


5.2 Summary and Conclusions

This study examined the effects of motivation on the performance of primary school teachers in Alimosho Local Government Area in Lagos. A total of 113 teachers from 12 primary schools participated in the study. With varying education levels, the majority of the respondents had been working for over 2 years in the schools studied. This implies that teachers were already conversant with the motivators in their respective schools and were therefore expected to assess how such motivators had affected their performance at work. Consequently, some of the study findings agree with the conceptual framework that was developed to guide the study while others do not. In all, however, the study found that motivation was necessary for high performance of teachers although in most cases teachers were poorly motivated.

Below, summary and conclusions of the study are presented in line with the specific objectives of the study, thus;

  1. The effect of motivation on teachersā€˜ morale to perform.
  2. The effect of intrinsic motivation on the performance of teachers.
  3. The effect of extrinsic motivation on the performance of teachers.
5.2.1 The effect of motivation on teachersā€™ morale to perform

Research findings revealed that teachers benefited from both monetary and nonmonetary motivators. The majority of the respondents joined the teaching profession because of the personal interest they had in teaching. However, 58.4% of the respondents indicated that salary was inadequate to meet their needs with increase of the cost of living. The inadequacy of the salary earned by primary school teachers was emphasized by one head teacher that ā€•..most teachers are not satisfied with the amount of money the government pays them. Itā€˜s indeed inadequate.

The cost of living has gone up and most teachers find it difficult meet daily expenses like transport, house rent, food, medical care and school fees for their family members from the mere 200,000= they earn as their salaryā€–. In addition, late payment of salaries was very common in Lagos. As a form of motivation, therefore, salary was insufficient to motivate teachers and increase their morale to perform efficiently. Besides, non monetary motivators were available in some schools although not all teachers had access to them in the respective schools they taught. Despite the relatively low motivation, however, the majority of the respondents indicated that their performance was good and encouraging (indicated by 50.4% of the respondents), implying that the majority of the teachers performed their activities with high morale.

Basing on the findings, it is fair to conclude that the performance of teachers was good despite the fact that their motivation was inadequate. Consequently, many respondents advocated for increase in salary and other non monetary benefits of teachers to match the increasing cost of living in Alimosho Local Government Areain particular and Uganda in general. Despite this, however, the majority of the teachers performed their activities with high morale as evidenced from reporting early at school, regular testing and examination of pupils, high turn up of teachers in staff meetings and school occasions, efficiency at maintenance of students discipline and supervision of school activities among others.

5.2.2 The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Performance of Teachers

Research findings indicated that the majority of the respondents were intrinsically motivated by the responsibilities they performed in the school that gave them a sense of control over others, interaction and development of relationship with people from many areas, recognition and respect accorded to teachers by the community and the challenging nature of the teaching profession. Other forms of intrinsic motivation were a great deal of job satisfaction and career development in the teaching profession. This implies that such teachers derived their expectations from teaching and therefore had high morale to perform better. Surprisingly, however, the majority of them (55.8%) indicated that intrinsic motivation had to a small extent increased their morale to perform. However, a significant positive relationship existed between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers implying that increase in intrinsic motivation increased the performance of teachers.

Basing on the research findings, therefore, the study concluded that the majority of the respondents had intrinsic motivation evidenced by increased recognition, job satisfaction, career development, commanding control over other people in the community, the challenging and competitive nature of the teaching profession and having realized their goal in life which was training the nation. A significant positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers was also found to exist (r = 0.437; Sig. = 0.000) at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that increase in intrinsic motivation of teachers increased their performance at work.

5.2.3 The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on the Performance of Teachers

Study findings revealed that the extrinsic motivators available to teachers in various primary schools in Alimosho Local Government Areawere free meals, prompt salary payments, advance payment from the schools in case teachers had financial problems, leave of absence in case a teacher had a reason to justify it and, extra teaching allowances to teachers. On the other hand, respondents revealed absence of the following extrinsic motivators: adequate salary, medical care, weekly duty allowances to teachers as well as accommodation. This implies that not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in the primary schools studied in Alimosho Local Government Area. Salary was notably the most pressing motivator that was reported to be lacking. Consequently, the majority of the respondents (74.3%) indicated that extrinsic motivators had a small effect on teacherā€˜s morale to perform; implying that inadequacy of extrinsic motivators did not significantly affect the morale of teachers to perform.

Basing on the study findings presented in this objective, therefore, it can be concluded that not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in the primary schools studied in Alimosho Local Government Area. However, the majority of them were concerned about the inadequacy of the salary to meet their basic needs. Consequently, the study found that extrinsic motivators had to a small extent increased teachersā€˜ morale to perform. Despite this, a positive relationship existed between extrinsic motivation and performance of teachers (r = 0.144). The relationship was statistically significant (Sig. = 0.042) at 0.05 level of significance, implying that increasing extrinsic motivation would increase the performance of teachers in Alimosho Local Government Area


5.3 Recommendations

Basing on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The Ministry of Public Service should work out incentive packages to increase teachersā€˜ motivation to teach in primary schools. Special attention should be put at increasing teacherā€˜s salaries because the majority of them (teachers) complained about the inadequacy of their salary to meet their needs. Increasing teacherā€˜s salaries will increase their morale to teach. This is because the teachers must be interested in what they teach and in the children when they are teaching. If they are not interested in the work themselves, they can never motivate the class to learn.
  2. Accommodation needs to be provided to the teachers to enable them live near schools since many of them reported to be living far away from their schools. Communities should be assisted by the government to put up decent teachersā€˜ houses so that teachers live within the schools and thus reduce lateness and absenteeism. This will increase their motivation and eventually performance. The local communityā€˜s contribution in this case may be in form of provision of free labour or financial contributions towards the construction process.
  3. Supervision by the Ministry of Education and Sports especially through Education Standards Agency should be strengthened and circuit supervisors be more regular to stop teachers from participating in secondary employment.
    The District Inspectorate should also be strengthened and adequately funded it to carry out routine inspections in schools. Regular visits to the schools would motivate the teachers to be more regular and early in school and avoid divided attention of searching for secondary employment.
  4. Awards could be instituted for better performance. Areas such as school and pupil discipline, teacher performance, pupil attendance and achievement and community and parent participation in school activities should be rewarded to serve as a motivation.
  5. Teachers need to motivate the children. Motivation is the ā€—force that determines how much effort an individual puts into his learningā€˜ (Farrant, 1980). As put by Farrant (1980, p. 113), The engines of human motivation are interest and desire. When these are working at full power in an individual, remarkable feats of learning can be achieved. It is therefore in the teacherā€˜s interest to take the trouble to see that the childā€˜s interest and appropriate desires are aroused before trying to teach him.

It is therefore important that teachers attempt to arouse the interest and the joy in each lesson they teach. They could do this through the use of humor in the classroom, paying individual attention to the pupils using different approaches to teaching and positive reinforcements. Motivated classes tend to increase teacher morale and performance.


Motivation And Teachers Job Performance In Public Primary Schools


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