Motivation As A Way Of Reducing Fraud In Banking Industry (A Case Study Of Eco Bank Plc Owerri)
For quite sometimes now, Fraud has become a serious food for though for many corporate bodies. As a result of this more time is being spent on board meeting in an attempt to find solution to the persistent fraudulent practices among management ands non-management staff. According to Omotosho (1992) “Fraud” is any activity that is taunted with criminal intention to cheat or deceived”
The rate at which fraud is perpetrated has led to loose of confidence in banks and motivation as a way of reducing frauds in banking industry.
The research work covered the area of motivation and provides a dear explanation on how workers can be adequately motivated in order to reduce fraud plaguing the banking sectors and performance enhancement. Questionnaire were used as the main instrument for data collection they gathered through the questionnaire were processed using simple percentage and chi square method, so as to facilitate an easy understanding of the analysis of data. Recommendations were also preferred based on the research findings. It is hoped if the recommendations are put in use; it will go a long way in reducing fraud in banking industry and lead to improvement in performances.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research question
- 1.5 Statement of Hypothesis-
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Concept of Fraud and its Status
- 2.2 Types of Fraud in Banking System
- 2.3 Effects of Fraud in Bank
- 2.4 Fraud Prevention and Control through Motivation and it’s Policies
- 2.5 Theories of Motivation
- 2.6 Fraud Prevention Measures by Eco Bank Plc
- 2.7 The Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) Report on Fraud
- 2.8 The Implications of Fraud
- 2.9 Fraud Prevention Measure
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Sources Method of data collection
- 3.4 Population of Study
- 3.5 Sample Techniques
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data collection
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of Data
- 4.3 Analysis of Data
- 4.4 Test of Hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of Data
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusions
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
The term motivation is described as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviour. It is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Motivation has to do with desire and ambition and if they are absent motivation is absent too.
Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reduce a sook to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activates behaviour. In everyday usage the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something for example you might say that a student is so motivated to get into a clinical psychology programme that he/she spends every night studying.
Generally, motivation can be defined as a force that provides action which activates, direct or channel behaviour towards achieving organizations objectives or goals.
Historical Background of the Case Study.
Diamond Bank Plc was incorporated as a commercial bank on December 20 1990 and began as a private limited liability company on March 2, 1991.
Ten years later in February 2001, it became a universal bank in January 2005, following a highly successful private placement share after which substantially raised the banks equity base. Diamond bank became a public limited company in May 2005. The bank was listed on the Nigeria stock exchange (NSE).
With the advent of universal banking Diamond Bank Plc is driven by innovation and operating on the most advanced banking technology platform in the market. The banks has over the years leverage on its big business relationships. And like a diamond, their strength makes them oven more valued and valuable.
To ensure that they grow with the needs of their customers, they streamlined their operations into five distinct strategic business segments namely, Retail banking, National Corporate, Diamond capital and public sector. The management team is composed of experienced highly skilled professionals whose combined banking experience span over a hundred years that its people constitute the most valuable asset. It prides itself of the high esthnical standard which have been adjusted to be among the industry’s capacity and team building and staff improve their versatility and pro-efficiency in every department of banking.
The bank makes sure that its staff is highly motivated in order to prevent the occurrence or constant fraudulent act in the industry. They embank on so many preventive measures to make sure that fraud is prevented in order to keep their credibility and their measures.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Recently, most Nigeria industries, mostly banks have been treating the moderation which borders on staff welfare with lending.
This is why most industries are faced with series of fraudulent practices consciously and unconsciously, perpetuated by the employees of the organization.
Investigations revealed that most organizations found it difficult to see motivation as being capable of making a meaningful contribution to their organization. This therefore resulted into the employees becoming frustrated ad easily involved in fraud.
The non-inclusion of denied and focused motivational strategy that will spare employees performance could be fell in the banking industry especially in the areas of efficiency and effectiveness that would have served as barriers to prudence of any kind.In this way, a lot still need to be done to put the industry on a second footing in the area of motivation. In order to bring about transparency and accountability in the banking sector.
The problem of motivation is not peculiar to the banking industry alone. It is a problem to be curiously addressed by the way majority of the Nigeria industries today other wise the fraudulent practice will continue unchecked.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The general objective of this is to find out if motivation serves as strategy of reducing fraudulent acts in most Nigeria industries given the high incident of banks fraud of the others as a result of lack of commitment on the part of management to boost the morale of the staff through motivation on welfare packages.
Therefore the general objective of this industry establishes the impact of motivation on employee’s performance and job satisfaction in Nigeria banking industry.
It ascertains whether motivation as a tool of improving workers performance facilitates transparency and accountability such that frauds in banking industry are minimized. If not completely eradicated.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The research work will be of importance and good use to those who are directly in charge of labour in either private or public sector of the economy.
- Motivation as a spur of the employees’ performance is not new, historically motivational varies and was designed to suit particular purpose of the employees’ vis-avis their status and need in any organization with a new to explore the best out of them.
- It plays an important role in assisting regulatory authority in the area of motivation essentially when formulating policy and implementing it that could lead to reduction in fraudulent act in Nigeria.
- This project work is useful to any person undertaking research on motivation.
- Consequently, the research describes how appropriate motivation improves low performance and reduce, if they completely eliminate frauds.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
This research work covered the area of motivation and provides a clear explanation on how employee can be motivated to achieve higher performance and hence reduce fraudulent practice in banking industry.
Researcher can not reach all the banks in the state and the country at large, so the study is restricted to few selected in eastern regions, precisely Owerri metropolis taking Diamond Bank Plc branch as the case study.
1.6 Research Questions
This research question is for a research project on an appraisal of commercial banking fraud and motivation as a way of reducing fraud in Nigeria banking industry.
- What is the essence of motivation on banks staff?
- Is mobilization one of the solutions to the problems of frauds on banking systems?
- Is there any other means of preventing fraud on banking system?
- Does fraud in banking industry have effects on the economy of the country?
- Does bank face constraints whenever there is a fraud?
1.7 Statement Of Hypothesis
- H1: Monetary motivation can prevent fraud at all levels of workers in banking industry.
- H2; Motivation packages improves profit of banks
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, a lot of obstacles were encountered. The researcher was constrained from visiting all the places necessary for obtaining needed materials due to finance. Also some of the staff visited at the bank premised was unfriendly to answer questions and find it very difficult to release vital information and facts required for the study. In addition there was limited time frame for the research study, this is because the study was combined with class work.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
This is the willingness to extent high-level of effort towards organizational goals. It is also the action or the causes to action that we take to certify a need. It is concerned with low behavior is stated, sustained or stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present with person. It is also an inner state that energizes, activates or move direct or channel behavior towards achieving organizational objectives.
It is the crime of deceiving somebody or a company in
order to get money or goods, illegally. It is an act of depriving person his dishonesty of something, which he is or might, but perpetration of fraud is entitled.
3. Motivational Policy:
This is a principle that guides the person when somebody does something or behaves in a particular way. It is also a principle, which a company adopts to see how best its workers or employee could be treated to get the best of their attention to work.
4. Motivation Theory:
Is a speculative plan or underlying principles of motivation which was theory of need, content theory of motivation etc.
It is something that encourages somebody to do something. It is a stimulus to move. It could be in form of money, leave allowance, holiday abroad, bonus, wardrobe allowance, housing allowance, children and maids allowance etc.
It is the crime of coping money documents etc in order to deceive people. This could be done by management or staff of an industry and it’s usually as a result of improper motivational factors. Examples are altered signature and counterfeit currency.
7. Intrinsic Motivation:
It means deriving satisfaction of your needs and therefore your motivation factor that influence people to behave in a particular direction. The factor include responsibility i.e. feeling that the work is important and having control over ones resources.
8. Extrinsic Motivation:
This means using work as means to an end. It is most called instrument approach. It also refers to what is done to or for people to motivate them; it could be rewards such as increase pay, praise or promotion.
9. Bank Failure:
A bank is said to have failed if it has not succeeded in achieving any of the objective for which it was established. That is when it cannot meet any of its obligations. These obligations are due first and foremost to its customers as well as its shareholders and even the community money.`
This is a person who commits fraud. That is somebody who is involved in the crime of deceiving somebody or companies in order to get money.
This is a crime of deceiving to get money or stealing customers money which is received by the person whose job is to receive and pay out money in a bank e.g. in appropriate customer money.
To change a written record or information so that it can no longer be there. To falsify data, records or accounts of a company.
13. Fraud Prevention;
It is the act of stopping the occurrence or an act of depriving a person dishonesty of something.
14. Financial Management:
Is the act of running and controlling the fineness of a company, it must set up objective plan and how this may be achieved which is done by the effect of a financial manager.
It is the amount of work that is paid to somebody for the work they have done, it could be salary, wages and so on.
16. Public Fund:
It is the money which is deposited in the bank but which belongs to the ordinary people in the society in general. It could also be government fund provided especially for the use of people in general.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
This chapter focuses on summary, conclusion and recommendations. In this research, an attempt has been made to assess the motivation as a way of reducing fraud in banking industry
The research work has attempted to unravel effect of welfare packages for employee and the role pf motivational policy in reducing fraud
The chapter one of this study introduced the paper as a field of studies the historical background of the research and field was employed. The chapter goes to state the significance of the study and the scope within which the paper is expected to cover. Motivation and the role it plays in reducing fraud in banking industry using fraud in banking industry using chartered bank placed a case study.
Chapter two focuses on the review of related literature. In this chapter, the research examined the people’s view on motivation the role of motivation in preventing and controlling fraud in an organization and finally the effect of fraud in banks.
Chapter three deals with the design of the study which comprises of the methodology, population of the study, instrument of data collection, reliability of the instrument and the method of data analysis used in analyzing the data.
In chapter four, the data collected through the use of questionnaires were analyzed showing the total respondents response on the issue.
Chapter five, which is the last chapter, contains the summary, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings from the study.
Summary Of Major Findings
The analysis of data obtained to the question relation to the research topic, that motivational policy or strategy plays a vital role in the enhancement of employee performance and reduction in fraudulent practices among employee in the banking sector.
The result of the analysis carried out have been able to establish that stiffer penalty like dismissal and imprisonment of crying staff would curb fraudulent acts in the banking industry. It is also established that the provision of welfare packages for employees in any organization is capable of enhancing the organizational objectives
The provision of these incentives will go a long way in reducing the act of fraudulent practices in the banking sector. In view of these, motivation has therefore, become an aspect of the organizational strategy that cannot be waved aside in any organization or establishment most especially in the banking sector. If fraud which becomes a concerned worm that has eaten deep into our economy could be checked.
As it has been established trough this research, work that providing necessary incentives and welfare packages
would ensure employees commitment to the realization and the organization objective and this will in doubt afford he employee the opportunity of blocking the availability of fraudulent practices in the organization.
The success of failure of any organization is largely dependent upon the performance and efficiency of the employees, from the summary of the finding, it is revealed that lack of welfare packages makes employees to perform below expectation and also results in fraudulent practice.
The findings also revealed that good motivational packages could improve worker’s performance, efficiency in profit making. And also that stiff penalty like instant dismissal of erring stiff could cub the fraudulent act
Finally it has also revealed that monetary alone cannot fulfill the desire of enhancement in performance even through money is important, it is not the only prime motivation of employees especially in banking sector.
After thorough understanding of the topic the processes of carrying out this research deem it necessary to give useful recommendation based on her findings.
The recommendation id carrie3d out, the researcher belief it will contribute immensely to the government, CBN and employees in our country Nigeria.
- The government should legislate motivation as a common practice in every corporate and private parastatal.
- The view that monetary motivation alone can bring improvement in performance is not true and such is not applicable in all situation or other motivational packages should be introduced.
- Central bank of Nigeria should thorough in their area of supervision of the banking sectors.
- The employers should be sensitive to their employees various need. Any staff found indulging in fraudulent practice should be given a commensurate punishment in the court o law.
Lastly, the researcher improved all Nigerian managers and all employers of labour to note the method and manner they use in directing, monitoring and controlling the activities of their subordinates in the banking industry they manage and their ability to relate and understand the environment they operate in, in which will influence their success of failure and therefore, this topic is of special concern to the monetary control and supervisory authorities who are charged with the safety of individual banks and the soundness of the banking system
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