Motivation As A Means Of Increasing Productivity In An Organisation

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Motivation As A Means Of Increasing Productivity In An Organisation


Abstract


The study sought to find out the motivational strategies and its impact on productivity The purpose of the study is to provide effective motivational strategies for organizations to use to motivate employees, to improve and increase productivity in organizations.The Literature review enables us to understand the various theories on motivation and the effect have on productivity The researcher developed a questionnaire to collect primary data regarding what will make employees perform and increase productivity. The study was conducted by collecting data from sample of 80 respondents selected from the target population using questionnaire The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentage distribution. It was established that staff of Guinness Nigeria Plc are being motivated but management need to deploy the various incentives in order to satisfy all employees. The responses from the survey revealed that motivation has a positive effect on productivity in the company. The study revealed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivators do lead to job satisfaction irrespective of the status of employees in the organizations. The following recommendations were made to enhance performance and increase productivity of Employees. Employees of the company should be given equal opportunities and recognition. Also the whole motivational system should be made more transparent to all employees and the appraisal system should call for the unique strengths to show as well as the expected rewards. There should be training and development programs open to workers. This should include both on-the-job and off-the-job training which will help workers to upgrade their knowledge and be able to meet their target.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.8 Oraganisation Of The Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Motivation – An Overview
  • 2.2 Definitions
  • 2.6 Motivation Theories
  • 2.8 Motivation And Productivity
  • 2.9 Public Service Motivation

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Population Studied
  • 3.2 Sample And Sampling Procedures
  • 3.3 Instruments Used
  • 3.4 Administration Of The Instrument
  • 3.5 Instrument Validity And Reliability
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Analysis And Discussion Of Results


Chapter Five

Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary Of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Employee motivation has always been a central problem for leaders and managers in the organisation. Unmotivated employees are likely to put in little or no effort in their jobs, avoid the workplace as much as possible, exit the organisation if given the opportunity and produce low quality output. On the other hand, employees who feel motivated to work are likely to be persistent, creative and productive, turning out high quality product that they willingly undertake.

In any serious and competitive society workers are one of the tools for economic progress. Their welfare is taken into serious consideration because without a dedicated workforce an organization crumbles. The Nigerian reward system is probably one of the poorest in the entire globe where “an average take home of the worker is barely enough to take the worker home”. Workers are used and abused, harassed, maltreated, offended and discarded without any appreciation for their contribution to their organization and to the society at large. It is therefore apparent that the issue of adequate motivation of worker has relevance in managerial function and activities that are aimed at directing the productive effort of the workforce toward achieving organisational objectives.

There has been a lot of research done on motivation by many scholars such as Campbell (1970), Bittle and Ramsey (1976), but the reason why every employee of a company does not perform at their best has been comparatively unresearched. This may be due to fact that every employee has different ways to become motivated. Therefore, employers need to know their employees very well and use different tactics to motivate each of them based on their personal wants and needs.

In Nigeria today, many entrepreneurs especially in medium and small scale businesses, invest a lot of money on machines and building with the hope of maximizing profit without taking the welfare of the their employees into consideration. In their pursuit of profit, they tend to forget that their workers should be happy at work and must have the right attitude to work. This state of mind can be guaranteed through efficient motivation. Motivation and productivity have been identified by a lot of researchers as key area for which diverse theoretical models have been formulated and various empirical findings point to the simple fact that motivation is a key variable in productivity.
No organisation can succeed without a certain level of commitment and effort from its members. For that reason, managers and management scholars such as Maslow(1943), Campbell(1970), and Herzberg(1968) have always formed theories about motivation. Thus, management of organisations are pre-occupied with the aim of implementing the motivation strategies considered to achieving optimum productivity.

Many researchers such as Maslow(1943), before now have tried to find out the relationship between motivation and productivity (if any) and how they can be managed to maximise the organisation’s profit. From such researches it has been established that a positive relationship exists between motivation and productivity in the sense that the higher the motivation of the staff the higher their commitment to the job which will consequently increase productivity.

This research work seeks to improve on already available findings on the subject, building on them and making necessary conclusions and recommendations for further enhancement of productivity in private sector organisations such as Guinness Nigeria Plc.


1.2 Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the research shall attempt to provide answers to the following questions:

  1. How does motivation affect productivity?
  2. Is money enough to motivate employees?
  3. How often do employers improve incentive systems in the workplace?
  4. Do different sets of motivation techniques impact on employees’ productivity?
  5. How effective is the motivation techniques used in Guinness Nigeria Plc?

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

This research work seeks to accomplish some objectives as regards motivation and how it can be used to increase the productivity of employees/workers in the organisation.

Some of these objectives include:

  1. Determine how motivation affects productivity.
  2. Determine if money is enough to motivate.
  3. Determine how often employers improve incentive systems in the workplace.
  4. Determine how different sets of motivation techniques impact on employees’ productivity.
  5. Determine the effectiveness of the motivation techniques used in Guinness Nigeria Plc.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ho: Motivation does not affect productivity
    Hi: Motivation affects productivity
  2. Ho: Money is not enough to motivate employees
    Hi: Money is enough to motivate employees
  3. Ho: Employers do not often improve incentive system in the workplace
    Hi: Employers often improve incentive system in the workplace
  4. Ho: Different sets of motivation techniques do not impact on employees’ productivity
    Hi: Different sets of motivation techniques impact on employees’ productivity
  5. Ho: Motivation techniques used in Guinness Nigeria Plc. are not effective
    Hi: Motivation techniques used in Guinness Nigeria Plc. are effective

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The focus of this study is on employees in the organisation who (in one way or the other) contribute to the productivity of the organisation. This study is centred on motivation as a means of increasing productivity of workers in the organisations whose shares are quoted in The Nigerian Stock Exchange in Nigeria with particular reference to Guinness Nigeria Plc., located in Benin City. Guinness Nigeria Plc. has its head office at 24, Oba Akran Avenue, Ikeja, Lagos. The period of study is 2004 to 2011.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

Basically, the importance of this study cuts across the work environment and the society at large, because the knowledge and findings of this study can be applied to every human task. An individual’s motivation would always be reflected in the amount of effort he puts into certain task.

This research is needed to improve employees’ performance at the workplace, to retain employees and to help organisations establish a good image. It would help managers and leaders in our society to identify the things that they need to do in order to successfully motivate their employees to perform at their best. As a manager this knowledge will therefore help him to understand what new strategies he could implement in order to motivate employees to achieve optimal business results. It is evident that there is a need for this study because of the many companies that are constantly spending on various ways to increase employee motivation.

The findings from this study would help to further highlight the likely problems of frustrations and how motivation can be used to either reduce or eliminate these problems amongst staff of Guinness Nigeria Plc.

However, it will add or contribute to the already available literature and reservoir of knowledge on the subject.
It will as well assist students, teachers, human resource managers, government and others who may find this research work useful. Furthermore this study will be of immense benefit to policy makers in the human resources functions of the organisations. Also labour union officials and representative at the negotiation meeting will find it useful when putting together their “basket of needs” and it will assist management in these other areas:

  1. Designing and putting in place together welfare incentives for the workforce
  2. Enables the organization identifies various types of needs and expectation of people at work.
  3. Outline different approach to work motivation.
  4. Useful for government officials and establishments responsible for reviewing and updating policies and legislation on workers’ motivation.

In the aspect of knowledge, it will help to create an understanding of the relationship between motivation and productivity. Similarly, in the aspect of practice, it will provide solutions to problems relating to motivation of workers in the organisation.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Limitations experienced in the course of this study are basically centred on problems relating to:

Difficulty in generating reasonable, adequate and reliable information from respondents- Respondents tend to provide information which they feel the researcher would be pleased to get, which may not be the right information.

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Busy schedule of the respondents

The workers of Guinness Nigeria Plc. who will be the respondents of the questionnaires may have busy work schedule thereby making them to provide answers to the questions hurriedly, which can affect their answers negatively.


1.8 Oraganisation Of The Study

This study will be presented in five chapters. The first chapter will contain the introduction statement of problem information about Guinness Nigeria Plc, the significance and organization of the study.

The second chapter deals with various theories on motivation and the factors, which enhances employee performance, increased productivity in an organization.

The third chapter describes the sampling technique used to determine the sample size, the population studied, and the instrument used.

The fourth chapter will be the analysis of data and the fifth chapter will present the summary of findings and conclusions and recommendations based on the study.


Chapter Five


Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

Out of the 80 respondents who answered questions on employee participation in decision making, sixty-five respondents were of the view that employees are allowed in decision making which resulted in 81%. Fifteen (15) respondents also shared the view that, they are not allowed, resulting in 19%. With the above interpretation, it can be concluded that respondents in the Company strongly take part in decision-making.

Thus motivate them to give their best to the company since they feel involve in any policy making by their organization. From the respondents in Nigerian airport‟ company, fifteen (15) out of the eighty (80) respondents are in favor that management give them the opportunity to further their education representing 19% of the population whiles 65 respondents answered negatively representing 81% of the population. This means, the employees do not get the opportunity to further their education or studies. This may affect their behavior towards work since they do not get the opportunity to upgrade themselves and meet the current market technology.

The results suggested that HRM practices such as pay based on performance, team relations and support go a long way to motivate employees in an organization.


5.2 Conclusion

Management must play active role in learning and managing the motivational process at the work place.
It is envisaged that all managers would be sensitive to variations in employees‟ needs, abilities and traits.
Involvement of employees in decision-making. Co-partners in increasing productivity. Any attempt by managers to improve the motivational level of their subordinates should be prefaced by a self-examination on the part of the managers themselves and their environment flux. Are they aware of their major strength and their major limitations? Do they have of them? Do they have a clear motivation of their own wants, desires and expectations from their jobs? Are their perceptions of themselves consistent with the perception others have of them?
In short, before managers attempt to deal with others in terms of motivation, then they should have a clear picture of their own roles in the organizational structure,

It is important that employees are made to see a clear relation between successful performance on their part and the receipt of their desired rewards. It is incumbent upon management to be able to identify superior performances and reward them accordingly. This would lead to greater effort towards goal attainment.


5.3 Recommendations

Despite the fact that majority of the respondents attested to the fact that employee motivation with the public service was effective, few problems were identified and need to be tackled or addressed to achieve optimal efficiency and productivity in the service.

Employees of the company should be given equal opportunities and recognition. Moreover, the whole motivational system should be made more transparent to all employees and the appraisal system should call for the unique strengths to show as well as the expected rewards.

Another issue is that, appraisals should be done quarterly to give employees feedback about their performance as well as communicate to employers the challenges they face.

Furthermore, there should be training and development programs open to workers. This should include both on-the-job and off-the-job training which will help workers to upgrade their knowledge and able to meet their target.
Since more people will be motivated by incentives, management should look at the various incentives that will help motivate employees.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does motivation play a significant role in workers performance at the organisation?

Thus it can be concluded that motivation plays a significant role in workers performance at the organisation 5.3 Recommendations The goal of this study was to find out the role motivation of workers played in achieving higher levels of productivity and thus committed to their jobs at the organisation.

What is the relationship between motivation and productivity?

Productivity would also increase if these are giving properly. In addition, motivation can be grouped under financial and non-financial motivation. A worker would be dissatisfied if these are not present.

Why is it important to motivate your employees?

Employees are motivated so they can produce higher outputs effectively, thus motivation is a key factor for progress in the organization. Motivation and its meaning are therefore essential for the organization (Pare 2001) because motivating employee is important in achieving organizational goals.

What is the motivation of motivation?

Motivation cannot be measured or directly observed. The concept describes a state of being that causes people to invest their strength and time in pursuing a goal. The higher the motivation, the more likely it is that the person will work towards the result with constant or increasing strength.

How employee motivation affects the performance of an organization?

It is now universally recognized that the employees’ motivation play a dominant role in the performance of the organization. When there is a low level of employees’ motivation, then it leads to low employees’ morale, lack of employees’ commitment and low productivity of the employees which gets reflected in the organizational performance.

Why is motivation of employee’s offers important?

Motivation of employee’s offers may benefits to the Organisation and also to the employees. This suggests the importance of motivating employees. Motivation acts as a technique for improving the performance of employees working at different levels.

What is the role of a leader in motivating employees?

One of the most important functions of management is to create enthusiasm amongst the employees to execute in the best of their abilities. Therefore the role of a leader is to arouse interest in presentation of employees in their jobs. The process of motivation consists of 3 stages:- 1. A felt need or oblige 2.

What is motivation in an organization?

Motivation in any organization is concerned with actions that what actions should be taken to improve the level of performance of workforce or employees, to sustain the high level of performance there is need of close attention to the best way of motivation.

How to motivate employees and boost productivity?

This will surely increase their productivity since they deal with customers first … It does away with traditional forms of employee motivation and concentrates more on self-fulfilment and other social psychological processes. Gamification incorporates …

How can motivation increase productivity?

You can’t be late to something that doesn’t exist … Time gets wasted. Energy gets wasted. Motivation, enthusiasm, and focus get wasted. All of which makes people much less effective. So start your meetings on time. And if you’re not willing to do …

When does motivation increase productivity?

When you are motivated, you are more focused to achieve your goals in a timely manner. Thus, more productive. Some motivation techniques to help increase your productivity include developing a mantra that works for you, committing to your goals publicly, and finding inspiration from others.

How to motivate your employees in 12 Easy Steps?

How to motivate your employees in 12 easy steps. 1. How to Motivate your Employees in 12 Easy Steps. 2. Create a friendly work environment 1. Your employees spend a large amount of time of their lives working in the office. So try to make the office look as friendly and appealing as possible. 

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