Motivation As An Instrument For Achievement Of Productivity In An Organization (A Case Study Of Federal Ministry Of Information Abuja)


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Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM


Dedication


I humbly dedicate this work to God Almighty who has given me the gift of life, good health, protection, knowledge and above all wisdom to make this work a reality.

To my parents ……………… for giving me both moral and financial support throughout my ND time. And also to my sisters, …………………………… and to my brothers …………………


Acknowledgement


I am very thankful to God Almighty for his grace upon me. To my academic mentors in the persons of …………………, my project supervisor for educating me on the act of project writing and method of its researchers and also to other lecturers who have taught me in the course of writing this project.

I equally appreciate the effort of my family members and all those other in making sure that I am a useful member of the society.

May God bless and sustain them all in their pursuit or strive to attain their life goal.


Table Of Contents


  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • Abstract

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 General Introduction
  • 1.2 Background To The Study
  • 1.3 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.4 Objectives Of The Study.
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.7 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.8 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.9. Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.10. Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two:Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2. Types Of Motivation:Intrinsic And Extrinsic
  • 2.3 Theories Of Motivation
  • 2.3.1 Douglas Mcgregor Theory ‘X’ And Theory ‘Y’
  • 2.3.2 Goal – Setting Theory
  • 2.3.3 Job Design
  • 2.3.4 The Two Factor Theory By Frederick Hertzberg
  • 2.3.5 The E.R.G Theory By Clayton Alderfer
  • 2.3.6. Adams’ Equity Theory:Balancing Employee Inputs And Outputs
  • 2.4 Summary Of Literature

Chapter Three:Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Area Of Study
  • 3.3 Source Of Data
  • 3.4 Research Design
  • 3.5 Population Of Study
  • 3.6 Sample & Sampling Technique
  • 3.7 Data Collection Instrument
  • 3.8 Validation & Reliability Of The Instrument
  • 3.9 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:Presentation Of Data And Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3. Test Of Hypotheses & Decision Matrix
  • 4.4 Interpretation Of Findings

Chapter Five:Summary, Recommendations, And Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary Of Findings
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • References

Abstract


This study examines motivation as an instrument for achievement of productivity in an organization, using Federal Ministry of information. as a case study. Federal Ministry of information, is a Nigerian multinational organization and financial services company.

Just like any long standing big organization Federal Ministry of information is faced with the problem of developing and sustaining staff engagement through motivation to achieve high employee and organization productivity and prevent low employee morale and low overall organizational performance, the paper aimed at identifying various strategies and motivational techniques that exist in the organization, determination of the best motivational techniques that bring the best out of employees and to determine ways of improving overall organizational performance through appropriate motivational approach.

This study was carried out among the employees of Federal Ministry of information, spanning throughdepartments in Abuja, Nigeria. 450 well –structured questionnaire were administered in the organization.A total of 300 questionnaires received back and passed through statistical analyses.

Research questions were raised based on the research objectives and hypotheses. Chi ( ) statistical test was deployed to test the various hypotheses formulated in the study. The result showed that quality of supervision has positive effect on employee motivation to work better.

It was also found that workers perception on what obtained in his organization will motivate him to greater productivity. Financial motivation involving monetary rewards have greater impact on performance and organizational productivity.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 General introduction

Motivation is one of the key elements in employee performance and productivity. Even when people have clear work objectives, the right skills, and a supportive work environment, they would not get the job done without sufficient motivation to achieve those work objectives. Mary (2000) refers to the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior as motivation. Motivation is one of the most contemporary issues in both public and private sectors management.

This is based on the understanding that motivation has a very significant role to play in the process of combining and utilizing organizational resources (men and materials) geared towards the accomplishment of organizational stated goals. Researchers have consequently sought to explain how and why people behave the way they do and how they can be made to behave in a manner supportive of the organizational goals. The problem of employee motivations has occupied the minds of employers and captains of industries since ages.

Basic to any explanation of why people behave in a certain manner is a theory of motivation. As Jones (1959), cited in Lawler (1969), pointed out that motivation theory attempts to explain “how behaviour gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism.”

The theory of motivation that will be used to understand employees‟ performance is “expectancy theory” (Vroom, 1964 as described by Robbins (1998). The expectancy theory used is based upon Lawier and Porter (1967), Porter and Lawier (1968) as quoted by Robert and Hunt (1991). According to this theory, an employee’s motivation to perform effectively is determined by two variables. The first of these is contained in the concept of an effort-reward probability.

This is the individual’s subjective probability that directing a given amount of effort toward performing effectively will result in his obtaining a given reward or positively valued outcome. This effort-reward probability is determined by two subsidiary subjective probabilities:the probability that effort will result in performance and the probability that performance will result in the reward (Lawler, 1969). Robins (1998) explained thus, “Vroom refers to the first of these subjective probabilities as an expectancy and to the second as an instrumentality.

The second variable that is relevant here is the concept of reward value or valence. This refers to the individual’s perception of the value of the reward or outcome that might be obtained by performing effectively. Although most expectancy theories do not specify why certain outcomes have reward value, the reward value of outcomes stems from their perceived ability to satisfy one or more needs. Specifically relevant here is the list of needs suggested by Maslow that includes security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and selfactualization needs (Herzberg, 1987).

The evidence indicates that, for a given reward, reward value and the effort-reward probability combine multiplicatively in order to determine an individual’s motivation. This means that if either is low or not existing then no motivation will be present. According to Lawler (1969), they illustrate a case of a manager who very much values getting promoted but who sees no relationship between working hard and getting promoted. To him, promotion does not serve as a motivator, just as it is not for a manager who sees a close connection between being promoted and working hard but who does not want to be promoted. In order for motivation to be present, the manager must both value promotion and see the relationship between his efforts and promotion‟ Thus, for an individual reward or outcome the argument is that a combination of its value and the appropriate effort-reward probability is necessary.

However, an individual’s motivation is influenced by more than one outcome. Thus, in order to determine an individual’s motivation it is necessary to combine data concerned with a number of different outcomes. This can be done for an individual worker by considering all the outcomes he values and then summing the products obtained from multiplying the value of these outcomes to him by their respective effort-reward probabilities.

According to this theory, if changes in job design are going to affect an individual’s motivation they must either change the value of the outcomes that are seen to depend upon effort, or positively affect the individual’s beliefs about the probability that certain outcomes are dependent upon effort (Vastano, 1985). Mullins (1999), in his book ‘’Management and Organisational Behaviour, distinguished between two kinds of rewards. As previously seen, the first types are those that are extrinsic to the individual. These rewards are part of the job situation and are given by others.

Hence, they are externally mediated and are rewards that can best be thought of as satisfying lower order needs. The second type of rewards is intrinsic to the individual and stems directly from the performance itself. These rewards are internally-mediated since the individual rewards himself. These rewards can be thought of as satisfying higher order needs such as self-esteem and self-actualization.

Robert and Hunt (1991) go further to illustrate that these rewards involve such outcomes as feelings of accomplishment, feelings of achievement, and feelings of using and developing one’s skills and abilities.
Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) argued that “Motivation” is “A combination of goals towards which human be-haviour is directed; the process through which those goals are pursued and achieved and the social factors involved”. Luthans (1992) says, “Motivation is a combination of needs, drives and incentives.

Motivation is defined as the process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”. Mullins (1999) says, “The underlying concept of motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation”.

Mullins also distinguishes between extrinsic motivation related to tangible rewards such as money; and intrinsic motivation related to psychological rewards such as the sense of challenge and achievement. There are inexhaustible definitions of motivation in various published works, articles, texts and journals by reputable fellows and organizations’ studying the concept „‟Motivation‟. The aforementioned definitions are just a few to illustrate the concept motivation as used in this work.


1.2 Background To The Study

There is general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance (Van Rooyen, J. 2006). One of the basic problems in any organization is how to motivate people to work. Motivating people to work entails, meeting their needs. This is because people working in the organization to meet workers needs affect the satisfaction, which the workers derive from their job.

The satisfaction that the workers derive from their job can affect their motivation to work. People are motivated by various factors at different times, according to Wilkinson et al (2007) the first factor is the combination of the individual perceptions of the expectations other people have of them, and their own expectations of themselves. This happens because people come into work situations with various expectations.

This is why a balance must be struck as much as possible between organizational objectives and individual aspirations (Sulcas, P. 2007). The essence of this is to ensure a situation where the individual is motivated while the organization is achieving established objectives.

The second factor deals with the issue of self-images and concepts as well as life experiences and personality.
These factors have to be positively motivated in the worker to yield proactive behaviour. This can be achieved through a carefully planned reward system, which is a type of reinforcement directed at modifying people’s behaviour.

Those who occupy management positions in organizations encourage employees basically through means of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement boosts favourable consequences that go a long way to encourage the repetition of particular behaviour (Adonisi, M. 2005).

It is therefore important for the management to ensure that they motivate their employees to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organization. The management of an organization can motivate its employees if it’s able to study the characteristics of the employee and know what actually motivate them to productivity.

It is in view of this that this study wants to look at motivation of employees as a tool for improving organizational productivity, by using the Federal Ministry of information as a case study.


1.3 Statement Of The Problem

Organization exists for the purpose of rendering some services. For the organization to meet its objectives, people are employed in the organization in order to help the organization meet its objectives. Thus, in order to ensure that people employed in the organization perform optimally towards the realization of organizational goals, they need to be motivated to work.

Motivating people to work entails meeting their needs. There is a great controversy over the issue of motivating people.

Some people are of the view that such extrinsic factors like money, praise, and quality of supervision and company’s policy can motivate people to work, while others are of the view that such extrinsic factors, like advancement, quality of the job done by person, recognition and growth only may not motivate workers to productivity.

It is in view of these controversies that this study wants to look at the motivation of employees in the organization by using Federal Ministry of information as a case study.


1.4 Objectives Of The Study.

This research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:

  1. To examine the factors which motivate employees to perform in Federal Ministry of information
  2. To look at various techniques of motivating people to performance in Federal Ministry of information.
  3. To ascertain the effect of motivation on worker’s productivity.
  4. To identify the problems associated with the motivation of workers in Federal Ministry of information.
  5. To suggest the solutions to such problems.
  6. Finally, to improve people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour.

1.5 Research Questions

It is in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:

  1. What are the factors that motivate employees to perform in Federal Ministry of information?
  2. What are the available techniques of motivating employees for higher
    productivity?
  3. Does motivation actually improve employee’s productive capacity in Federal Ministry of Information, Abuja?
  4. What are the problems militating against employees motivation?
  5. How can these problems of employees’ motivation be addressed in order to improve productivity in Federal Ministry of information?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:

  1. Ho: The quality of supervision will not motivate workers productivity.
    Hi:The quality of supervision will motivate workers productivity.
  2. Ho: A worker’s perception of what obtained in his organization will not motivate him to greater productivity.
    Hi: A worker’s perception of what is obtained in his organization will motivate him to greater productivity.
  3. Ho: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will motivate him to greater productivity.
    Hi: A worker’s perception of organizational appraisal policy will not motivate him to greater productivity.
  4. Ho: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will not motivate him to greater productivity.
    Hi: The worker’s satisfaction with its fringe benefits will motivate him to greater productivity.

1.7 Significance Of The Study

  1. This study will contributes to making the workplace meaningful and exciting, because motivated workers will bring about improved organization performance.
  2. This study will educate the management of organizations (especially the organization under study, Federal Ministry of information ) on how to motivate their workers to productivity.
  3. The findings of this study will generate people’s interest in researching into other areas of research on motivation and performance in the workplace.
  4. Finally, the study hopes to enrich people’s knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and management of people in the organization.

1.8 Scope Of The Study

This study is on impact of motivation on organizational productivity. The study will also cover the various techniques of motivation and theories of motivation as they impact on employees’ productivity in an organization. The study covers a period of ten (10) years of organizational performance, 2004-2014.


1.9. Limitation Of The Study

The study is limited to the employees’ motivational factors, and its effect on organizational productivity. The study does not consider other variables and as such is limited to only those areas specified above. Also, it does not cover all sectors of the Nigerian economy.


1.10. Definition Of Terms

The following terms were defined as used in this study:

Productivity:

Is the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an organization. It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.

Employees:

Are the workers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the organization.

Motivation:

Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to them”.

Adequate Motivation:

These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.

Intimacy:

Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship among people.

Consideration:

Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers.

Morale:

Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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