Modern Washing Machine, Principles Of Operation And Maintenance
This project addresses the design of modern washing machine, principle of operation and maintenance, the goal was to design, build and test a prototype modern washing machine that incorporates its principle and maintenance as a mechanical safety feature. The main problem was to develop an ergonomic and low cost solution while ensuring the safety and reliability of the system through-out it full range of motion. The purpose of this study is to gain information related to its development, to aid the removal of dirt’s and stains and in carrying out repairs and maintenance on modern washing machines. A modern washing machine structure includes, peddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing. Inside the cloth washer drum, the paddles turn the clothes through the water, the hole let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal stops the water leaking out through the door.
1.1 Background of Study
A washing machine (Laundry machine, clothes or washer) is a machine used to wash laundry such as clothing and sheets, the term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners.
Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labour spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing, the earliest machines where hand-operated and constructed from wood, while later machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the wash tub, keeping the water warm throughout the day’s washing.
The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid -1850s steam driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades, especially in the UK.
In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were widely used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the rotary washing machine was patented by Hemilton Smith in 1858.
As electricity was not commonly available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit and miss gasoline engine.
Inside a clothes washer drum, the paddles turn the clothes through the water; the holes let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal stops water leaking out through the door.
The basic idea of a clothes washer is simple, it sloshes your clothes about soup acids for a while and then spins fast to remove the water afterwards, but there’s a bit more to it than that.
Think of clothes washer and you probably think of a big drum that fills with water but there are actually two drums, one inside the other.
The inner drum is the one you can see when you open the door or the lip. In a front-loading clothes washer, common in Europe, the drum stands upright, you push your clothes inside the door from the front and the whole drum rotates about a horizontal axis (like a car wheel).
The drum has lots of small holes to let water in and out and paddles around the edge of slosh the clothes around. In a top-loader, more common in the United states and Asia, you open a lip on top and drop your clothes into the drum from above.
The drum is mounted about a vertical axis but doesn’t actually move. Instead, there’s a paddle in the middle of it called an agitator that turns the clothes around in the water.
Clothes washing from yesteryear, this GEC electric washing machine, dating from 1935, were much more primitive than today’s machines. There was no spinning to get the clothes dry instead, you had to use a wringer (also called a mangle) fitted to the top of the machine (a pair of rollers through which you fed the clothes to squeeze out the excess water).
This one is an exhibit at think tank; the science museum is Birmingham, England. There’s a second, bigger drum outside the inner drum that you cannot see, its job is to hold the water while the inner drum (in a front loader) or the agitator (in a top-loader) rotates. Unlike the inner drum, the outer drum has to be completely water-tight-or you’d have water all over the floor.
The two drums are the most important parts of a clothes washer, but there are lots of other interesting bits too. There’s a thermostat (thermometer machine) to test the temperature of the incoming water and a heating element that warms it up to the required temperature, there’s also an electrically operated pump that removes water from the drum when the wash is over.
Theirs is mechanical or electronic control mechanism called a programmer, which makes the various parts of the clothes washer go through a series of steps to wash, rinse, and spin your clothes, there are two pipes that let clean hot and cold water into the machine and a third pipe that lets the dirty water out again. All these pipes have values on them (like little doors) across them that open and shot when necessary).
To control a washing machine top: an old-style mechanical clothes washer programmer, the dial on the left selects the program, the dial on the right sets the wash temperature (it’s effectively a thermostat). Bottom: a modern electronic programmer, these dials are mounted on a computerized programmer circuit, the countdown display tells you how long in hours and minutes it will be before your washing is clean and ready to take out (one hour and two minutes in this case, for a 300c wash with very fast 1400pm spin).
All the important parts of the clothes washer are electrically controlled, including the inner drum, the values, the pumps and the heating element, the programmer is like the conductor of an orchestra, switching these things on and off in a sensible sequence that goes something like this.
- You put your clothes in the machine and detergent either in machine itself or in a tray up above.
- You set the program you want and switch on the power.
- The programmer opens the water values so hot and cold water enter the machine and fill up and outer and inner drums; the water usually enters at the top and trickles down through the detergent tray, washing any soap there into the machine.
- The programmer switches off the water valves.
- The thermostat measures the temperature of the incoming water. If it’s too cold, the programmer switches on the heating elements, this work just like an electric kettle or water boiler.
- When the water is hot enough, the programmer makes through the soapy water.
- The detergent pulls the dirt from your clothes and traps it in the water.
- The programmer opens the water values again drains from both drums, then it switches on the pump to help empty the water away.
- The programmer opens the water values again so clean water enters the drums.
- The programmers make the inner drum rotate back and forth so the clean water rinses the clothes. It empties both drums and repeats this process several times to get rid of all the soap.
- When all the clothes are rinsed, the programmer makes the inner drum rotate at really high speed around 80mph (130km/h). The clothes are flung against the outside edge of the inner drum, but the water they contain is small enough to pass through the drums, tiny holes into the outer drum spinning gets your clothes dry using the same idea as a centrifuge.
- The pump removes any remaining water from the outer drum and the wash cycle comes to an end.
- You take your clothes out and marvel at how clean they are.
- But there’s still the problem of drying your wet clothes to figure out.
1.2 Problem Statement
- Problem with rotor imbalance arise in washing machine.
- Problem in color bleeding
- Problem in fill cycle
- Problem in typical drive train
- Problem in spine and drain cycles
- Problem in typical
- Problem in fill solenoid values
- Problem in water level switches
- Problem in fill strainer screens
- Problem in overfill
- Problem in water level pressure tube
- Problem in transmission and driver train (a) Belt (b) Agitator (c) Transmission
1.3 Aim and Objectives
This project research is aimed at ascertaining how the modern washing machine work, its operations and maintenance produces.
The aim is to provide the entire department served adequate supply of clean linen conforming to highest standards of cleanliness and hygiene immediately and constantly available for routine and emergency use from a central place this reducing the overall cost and effective supply of linen to all departments.
The Objectives are:
- To provide linen free or dirt, soils and stairs to all users.
- To monitor and enforce controls necessary to prevent spoilage (wear and tear due to washing) of linen and reduce the frequency of linen turn over by increasing the life period.
- To maintain record of effectiveness of cleaning disinfecting and turnover.
- To stay undated regarding developments in the field in the interest of efficiency, economy, accuracy and provision of better patient care.
- To undertake studies for improvement of clean practices and processing method to provide supplies economically.
- To develop a cost effective program by cost analysis of personnel, supplies and equipment.
1.4 Scope of Work
This research will cover all theoretical aspects of clothes washing machine
Inside a clothes washer drum, the paddle turns the clothes through the water. The role let the water in (from above) and out (from below). The rubber seal water leaking out through the door.
The inner drum is the one you can see when you open the door or the lid. In front loading clothes water, common in Europe, the drum stands upright. You push your clothes inside the door from about a horizontal axis (like a car wheel). The drum has lots of small holes let water in and out and paddles around the edge to slosh the clothes around.
1.5 Considerations in Studying
Due to the lifespan of modern washing machine the considerations are base of the following.
- Stress: The biggest cause of washer breakdown is stress, overloading the washer’s puts stress on all of the extra parts like the motor, the drive belts and the coupling. The harder these parts work the shorter the lifespan.
- By the Number: Washer are related by how many cycle they can perform before they breakdown. Each load is considered one cycle being able to handle about 5100 cycles. Of course machine that cost less may only be machines may be rate 8000 cycle or higher.
- Current drop in Nigeria can reduce the lifespan of the modern washing machine do to inefficiency of electricity in our country.
1.5 Limitation of Study
Due to the reason that we are not designing modern washing machine, the limitation study is unknown.
DIAGRAM ON MODERN WASHING MACHINES AND PROCESS
FRONT LOADER WASHIGN MACHINE
A Typical Front Loader Washing Machine
A washing machine/laundry machine clothes washer is a machine used to wash laundry, such as clothing and sheets. The term is mostly applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning (which use alternative cleaning fluid, and is performed by specialist businesses) or ultrasonic cleaners.
Inside a Cloths Washer Drum
Right inside a clothes washer drum, the paddle turn the clothes through the water, the hole let the water in (from above) and out (from below. The rubber seal stop water leaking out through the door.
The basic idea of a clothes washer is simple, it sloshes your clothes about in soap suds for a while and then spins fast to remove the water afterward. But there is a bit more to it than that, think of a clothes washer and you probably think of a big drum that fill with water, but there are actually two drums, one inside the other.
The inner drum is the one you can see when you open the door or the lid. In a front loading cloth washer, common in Europe, the drum stand upright. You push your cloths inside the door from the front and the whole drum rotates about a horizontal axis (like a car wheel).
The drum has lots of small holes to let water in and out and paddle around the edge of slosh the clothes around. In a top-loader, more common in the United state and Asia, you open a lip on top and drop your clothes into the drum from above. The drum is mounted about a vertical axis but doesn’t actually move.
Instead, there is a paddle in the middle of it called an agitator that turns the clothes around in the water.
There is a second bigger drum outside the inner drum that you cannot see; its job is to hold the water while the inner drum (in a front loader) or the agitator (in a top-loader) rotates. Unlike the inner drum, the outer drum has to completely water tight or you had have water all over the floor.
The two drums are the most important parts of a clothes washer, but there are lots of other interesting bits too. There is a thermostat (thermometer mechanism) to test the temperature of the incoming water and a heating element that warms it up to the required temperature. There warms it up to the required temperature. There is also an electrically operated pump that removes water from the drum when the wash is over. There is a mechanical or electronic control mechanism called a programmer which makes the various parts of the clothes washer go through a series of step to wash, rinse and spin your clothes. There are two pipes that let clean hot and cold water into the machine and a third pipe that lets the dirty water out again. All these pipes have values on them (like little door across them that them (like little door across them that open and shut when necessary.
Steps to Follow When use Modern Washing Machines
- You put your clothes in a machines and detergent either in the machine itself or in a tray up above.
- You set the program you want and switch on the power.
- The programmer opens the water values so hot and cold water enters the machine and till up the outer and inner drums. The water usually enters at the detergent tray, washing any soap there into the machine.
- The programmer switch off the water values.
- The thermostat measures the temperatures of the incoming water. If it is too cold, the programmer switches on the heating element. This works just like an electric kettle or water boiler.
- When the water is hot enough, the programmer makes the inner drum rotates back and forth, sloshing the clothes through the soapy water.
- The detergent pulls the dirt from your clothes and traps it in the water.
- The programmer opens a value so the water drains from both drums. Then it switches on the pump to hop empty the water away.
- The programmer open the water value again so clean water enters the drums.
- The programmer make the inner drum rotate back and forth so the clean water rinses the clothes. It empties both drum and repeats this process several times to get rid of all the soap.
- When the clothes are rinsed, the programmer makes the inner drum rotate at really high speed around 80mph (130km/h). The clothes are thing against the outside of the inner drum, but the water they contain is small enough to pass through the drums tiny hole into the outer drum. Spinning get your clothes dry using the same idea as a centrifuge.
- The pump removes any remaining water from the outer drum and the wash cycle come to an end.
- You take your clothes out and marvel at how clean they are.
- But there is still the problem of drying your wet clothes to figure out.
The Process of a Front Loading Washing Machines
- There is a fixed outer drum (blue) and a rotating inner drum (red) with small hole around its edge. The drums are amounted on a horizontal axis.
- The inner drum is held to the frame of the machine by heavy duty springs that is because when the clothes spin, they can make the drum shake violently the spring help to absorb the vibration.
- Hot and cold water enter through the detergent tray at the top.
- The inner drum turns back and forth, the plastic paddles on the inside (shown here by gray triangles) help to sloash the clothes held by the outer drum.
- An electric motor turns the inner drum, typically using a long rubber belt (yellow).
- A heating element heats the water as necessary.
- When the wash cycle is finished the pump suck the water away.
- The water empties down a tube to the drain.
5.0 Summary and Conclusion
The heart of the agitator type washing machine is the agitator, which usually consists of vanes or blades on a cone that fits over a central shaft in the washer tub. As the agitator turn back and forth, the blades or vane catches clothes and move then about.
This movement also creates currents in the water, which contribute to the cleaning acting. There are almost as many agitator designs as there are washers that use agitators. Agitator has vanes or blades of various number design and size, which are arranged perforated plastic or metal (usually aluminum).
Most agitator-type washing machines employ an oscillating (black-and-forth) action during the wash cycle.
To produce this oscillating action, the arm is generally connected off-center to a low-speed gear wheel. As this gear wheel turns, it imparts a back and forth motion to the arm. This motion, in turn is transmitted to a pinion gear which drives the agitator.
They are also other method of driving the agitator. For instance, a few models provide a some other imparts an up and down, pulsating motion to it. While the oscillating action is the one most commonly used for the washing operation, some machines of this type employ a rotating or revolving motion to spin the tub or basket for the extraction operation.
To accomplish this, a clutch action of some type is used to disengage one set of gears and engage the other.
One such clutch used in washers consist of a pin dropping in place in a hole in the drive gear to engage it or it may be a friction type, as it frequently found in automobiles.
Incidentally, agitator-type washing machines are top loading meaning that the clothes are placed in the washer through a door or lid that open on the top of the unit.
The front load type of automatic washer has gained in popularity in recent years.
The tumbler mechanism is a perforated cylinder, usually aluminum or porcelain enumerated steel, which holds the clothes, it revolves in a larger tub that holds the water.
Within the cylinder are baffles, which are projections designed to carry the clothes along, through, and out of the water, until the position of the clothes causes them to fall downward again, and the process is repeated.
The axis of rotation of the washing cylinder usually is either parallel to the floor or inclined upward from the floor at approximately a 30 degree angle. A few have a vertical cylinder. Most tumbler-type washer is loaded from the front, but some can be loaded from the top or at an angle.
During the washing cycle, the cylinder revolves slowly tumbling the clothes about in soapy water.
During the dump-dry cycle, the cylinder revolves rapidly, and centrifugal action helps to throw the water out of the clothes.
The low speed for washing and the high speed for dump-drying are provided by the gears in a transmission as in an automobile. In a similar manner, there is a gear shifting arrangement and a clutch a engage the gears.
The needs and components of both tumbles and agitator washers are about the same. For example, both require hot and cold water and mix them at appropriate time.
While a few washers control water temperature with a thermostat, most operate on a simple on-off principle. When the hot water is on and cold is off, the water in the washer is hot-whatever temperature the water heater tank provides. When the cold water is on and whatever temperature the cold-water tap provides.
When both hot and cold are on, they are evenly mixed to provide warm water, with average cold water temperature out of the tap (about 50F), the mixture come out at about 100F.
All automatic washers have an electric motor as well as pump. The motor on most models, in driving the washer through the wash the rinse cycles, operates in both the counter clockwise and clock wise direction when viewed from the top of the machine.
It operation counter clockwise during the wash cycles are agitate rinse operation and clock wise during the pump out and spin operations. The motor turns the pump and drive pulley through a belt or motor-coupler arrangement. After the completion of the agitation or rinse, the water is pumped from the washer before the start of the rinse cycle.
In this operation the motor is operating in the clockwise direction as it is in the spin, however, and overriding clutch disengages the transmission spin tube so solenoid release the clutch spring and the spin basket rotates to extract the water from the clothes.
The pump usually in operation continuously when the agitator is in operation power is transferred directly into the transmission from the drive pulley through the transmission drive shat and clutch spring located inside the transmission case.
During the pump out and spin periods the clockwise rotation of the motor releases the clutch.
Solenoids play a very important part in the operation of an automatic washer. In addition to operating the clutch and gear shift arrangements, they control water flow, detergent application and the like.
Of course, the overall control of the automatic washer is left to the time or the electronic control. While part of the control is selected by the user for instance, washing time and water temperature most of the automatic action is performed at certain preselected time intervals by the timer/control.
Soil removal in a modern washing machine is a combination of chemical and mechanical processes.
1. Mechanical action:
Flexing the clothes and forcing the detergent or soap through removes the soil.
The functioning of the washer is aided by the heat and softness of the water, which increases the chemical action of the detergent or soap used.
2. Chemical action:
The detergent or soap solution dissolves and loosens the soil in the fabric.
Almost all modern automatic washers employ one of two types of mechanical action tumbler or agitator.
The latter is by far the more popular and more commonly used. But all automatic washers, regardless of type, model or make have only four base function.
- Pump out, and
- Extraction (Spin).
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