Modern Journalism And The Effect Of Gratification Practice (A Case Study Of ESBS) Enugu

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Modern Journalism And The Effect Of Gratification Practice (A Case Study Of ESBS) Enugu


The pace of social development everywhere seems to be quickened by the important roles the mass communication play in our society. Unfortunately modern journalism and the effect of gratification is on the increase and it has now posed seriously concern to enlightened Nigerians.

The study is aim to find out why Journalism demand gratification and if the practice influences the selections of news to be aired.

A survey was employed in the study, responses were coded in percentages and presented in tables. The result of the study shows the lack of financial stability is the major reason why modern journalists demand and accept gratification.

Table of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Cover page
  • Title Page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of research problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Research hypothesis including the null-information
  • 1.7 Scope of study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study

Chapter Two

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Acceptance of Gratification
  • 2.2 Need for training
  • 2.3 Effect of gratification
  • 2.4 Gratification and media resources
  • 2.5 Summary of related literature

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of study
  • 3.4 Research sample and sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Data collection
  • 3.6 Validity of instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of instrument

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Result

  • 4.1 Data analysis and tabulation
  • 4.2 Result
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary and Recommendation for Further Study

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Recommendation for further studies
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Questionnaire

Lists of Tables

  1. Pattern of response on the effect of financial packaging in influencing the behaviour of journalist (samples)
  2. Assessment of importance of journalism in over society
  3. Necessity of accepting gratification in practicing journalism
  4. Assessment of training and retraining in boosting better performance among journalists
  5. Pattern of response on the effect official background in influencing the behaviour of journalists
  6. Support and non support response on the possibility of the new anti corruption crusade eradicating gratification practice
  7. Patter of responses on whether gratification practice can influence news judgment
  8. Patter of response on whether gratification practices can increase the credibility of ESBS
  9. Pattern of assessment of impartial of press freedom in eradicating the problems of journalist

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Mass media such as radio, television and newspapers are those channel of information which can make simultaneous message available for a diversified public.

This ability to reach large audience both those in the rural and urban areas makes the agent of mass information very attractive to those who wishes to influence the masses, their actions and reactions to events, in a predetermined direction. Unknown to many perhaps is the fact that not all the news stories they hear these days from the radio, watch on television and even read from the newspaper are selected or used purely because of their news values.

There are traditional criteria for judging certain events, ideas, places and personalities as newsworthy in journalism, as Mac Bride (1980) put it “Important events especially in the countryside are pushed aside by unimportant events, trivial news items concerning urban events and the activities of personalities.

Inextricably linked to the present corrupt practices in the country today is gratification practices by journalist demanding or receiving gratification to perform their official duties or using positions of authority and power to exhort gifts either directly or indirectly, although hen questioned, some journalist explained that most of the gift they receive were insignificant as far as they are concerned saying that it is a small taken of appreciation for their work and will be less willing to accept the gifts if they were better paid.

In government ownership of mass media, journalist are not well paid event the money for their fare is very difficult to be provided and still the government makes sure that the journalist working under them dance to their tune instead of perfuming their rightful duties as a watch dog in the society.

Even when the journalist write stories that should be published the editors will make sure that they edit and correct the news stories and sometimes they intentionally remove or censor vital information from been published so that they will not be sacked by the government without bearing in mind that it is very detrimental to the development of the society as a whole.

Today, there are private owned media organisation whose aim is to propagate the truth, no matter the circumstance wihtou any gratification acceptance and so the journalist have to be very careful of what he is publishing, libelous and seditions statement should be removed by the editor because it can earn the journalist who wrote the story a jailed sentence or the establishment closed.

However the journalist must not rush to the editorial room with a story whose facts have not be thoroughly checked, besides he must make it a point of duty to acquaints himself with the constitutional provisions governing libel, slander, sedition, defamatory and obscenity so that if at anytime he is charged with any of the offence he would be able to defend himself successfully in collaboration with his lawyers.

Same professional journalist that are objective and non subjective in writing their news stories don’t mind any hazard they will encounters but they only wants to project the good image of their media house for individuals to believe and have truth on any of their publish stories, for instance, a journalist was assassinated while performing his lawful duty, the journalist was no less a person than Dele Griwa, the chef executive of news watch magazine who was killed by a letter bomb in his study in Lagos although he is dead but his effort of his objectivity was recognized, he never depended on any gratification and that was why he was assassinated.

Moreover, the rest chapters will elaborate more on the topic using Enugu State Broadcasting Station or A case study.

1.2 Statement of Problems

Gratification practice by Journalist has reach its credo and is posing serious threats to socio – political and economic development of the country, yet mass communication claims they are socially responsible, the question of their creditability therefore revolve around the following questions.

  1. Should journalist demand or receive gratification to perform their duties?
  2. Should acceptance of gratification influence news judgment.
  3. What effect has the above conditions on the society?

1.3 Objective of Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate and ascertain the positive and negative effect gratification practices has among journalism which maybe the factors militating against the smooth operation of journalist.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will help to put an end to gratification practice among journalists.

  1. The study will help to arrest the declining attitude of public confidence to the media houses
  2. The study will help in future, government policies as its effects “Journalist salary scale”
  3. It will also help the management of Enugu Broadcasting Stations in formulating policies.
  4. It will also help to ensure that media monopoly do no act as though they own the news.
  5. This study will equally help to guarantee the freedom of the press and the right of people to know about events taking place inside and outside their community without any infringement of an individuals liberty they anyone or from any quarters.

1.5 Research Question

  1. What are the impacts of journalism is our society?
  2. Has demanding and receiving of gratification by journalist any impacts in the public?
  3. What are the role of training on the performance of journalists?
  4. Could financial background play a role in influencing the attitudes of journalists towards gratifications?
  5. Could the new anti corruption crusade quencit the thirst for gratification practices among journalist.

1.6 Research Hypothesis (Including The Null Hypothesis)

  1. Government censorship of the mass media have had a negative effect on the practices of journalism.
  2. The gratification practices among mass communication has led to mistrust and hatred among its publics (audience).
  3. The government control on the mass media both radio, television and newspaper has affected the free flow of information which deprive the members of public the right to know what is happening in society in which they live.

1.7 Scope of Study

The scope of study is Enugu, the establishment is Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS).

1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study, modern journalism and the effect of gratification practice should have encompassed all the media in Nigeria, but due to poor finance and logistics, it was limited to Enugu State Broadcasting Services (ESBS) which is government owned media organisation.

The project topic deals with the effect the gratification practice have among modern journalist and on mass communication and the public as a whole.

Moreover the limitation of time made it impossible for a further research work beyond one case study used (ESBS) poor access to textbooks and study reports, the study could not go beyond what we have in this materials but with the scope used. Commendable and reliable result at the end is generated.

Chapter Five

Summary and Recommendation for Further Study

5.1 Summary:

The research finding have shown that

  1. Gratification practice is a trend acceptable by some ESBS journalist.
  2. That irregular payment of salaries and poor economic conditions are the two major factors that influence gratification acceptance.
  3. That to some of the respondents , it does not really matter what the masses think about ESBS. That although 75% of the respondent believe in training and workshops, most of them are unethical.

Conclusively, based on the research result, it is of evidence that many of the journalist believe in accepting gratification because f financial difficulties and the effect, is lack of trust to media house.

5.2 Recommendation:

Effect performance on duties required ood physical and mental ability and this only possible when there are content staffs. Journalist can only be contented when their salaries are regular and high, because of the hazard inherent in the practice of journalism, the long awaited “journalist salary scale” should be enforced to ensure that news should be evaluated based on the necessary element.

These factors therefore necessitate the following recommendations.

  1. Regular payment of salaries
  2. Implementation of the long awaited “journalists” salary scale.
  3. A more forceful implementation of news anti corruption crusade in government media houses.
  4. News managers and editors should be held responsible for all malpractices as they are the last gatekeepers, so that they can rightly pull the bull by the hon.

5.3 Recommendation For Further Studies

The research recommend that future researcher on gratification practice y journalist should endeavour to carry out research on the following.

  1. The extent the gratification practice influences news judgment.
  2. The extent to which a regular and highly paid staff accepts gratification.
  3. The relationship between the government and the press as a basic for effective consideration of the problems of journalists.
  4. The effect of lack of trust to media houses.
  5. How gratification practice can be completely eroded in media houses.


Financial constraints was a key factor in limiting the study as a student who find it difficult to raise a fund for the project was problem, secondary, some staff of ESBS loss their job as a result of the harmonization exercise by the state governor and this led to the non challenge attitude of the journalists during the pilot study.

Thirdly, the distribution of questionnaire coincided with Christmas preparations and the festive mood was uppermost in the mind of the respondents, so the researcher had to visit and revisit the establishment in the bid to collect the questionnaire, thereby spending so much time.

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