Use Of Models And Secondary School Students’ Performance In Biology

Biology Education Project Material

Use Of Models And Secondary School Students’ Performance In Biology


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the use of models and secondary school students’ performance in biology in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the extent biology teachers utilize models to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school; ascertain whether the use of models enable students participate effectively in the teaching process of biology in secondary schools; find out whether the use of models during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and performance in examinations; and ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers and students of six selected secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 107 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between the use of models and students’ performance in Biology. The study also revealed that there is a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models. Therefore, it is recommended that he students especially, young learners would need their teacher to provide guidance and to facilitate the learning journey. This teacher should know when to relinquish the control and little by little allow the learners to gain more autonomy to express their learning among their peers and to the teacher. This is possible when the teacher will always consider the needs of the students at all times. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Teaching and learning processes are very crucial at all levels of educational development. If well planned and directed, they are the keys to success and progress of individual. Therefore, best methods couple with the right instructional materials has to be used in order to enhance effective teaching and learning. Models according to Dike (2009) do not only increase the motivation of the teachers and learners; they add clarity to the topic taught and make learning more interesting. Permanent learning is the goal of education in that the learners should be able to retain what is taught and make learning more permanent since they appeal to more than one sense.

Ode and Omokaro (2012) revealed that learners retain most of what they hear, see and feel than what they merely hear. This concept bears credence to the old chines adage which says ‘what I hear I forget what, what I see I remember and what I I know Arnett (2010, as cited in Claiborne and Drewery, 2013). A visual instruction encourages the use of models to make abstract ideas more concrete to the learners. Therefore, the teacher’s duty is to make learning live, not just something to remember but part of living experience. This can be done effectively by employing the use of models in teaching and learning of biology as a mean of imparting knowledge to learners. Educators have come to realize that the most effective teaching and learning take place when an individual has direct experience with the subject under study, in order word, learners learn best by doing Agibe (2010).
A model is a representation of a system (for instance, the human respiratory system, thyroid, cardiovascular etc) or a phenomenon (such as the changing seasons, the oxidation of body, or human’s maintaining their body temperature etc). These representations can take the form of drawings, diagrams, simulation or even physical replicas. According to Okobia (2011), teachers frequently use models in the classroom; in fact, textbooks are full of these representations: unfortunately, most teachers rarely make use of models. Models are used as props to show, point out, or provide examples of a system or phenomenon. Visual resources are books, charts, motion pictures, posters, diagrams, and photographs.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In spite of the accompanying gains and the clarion call for the provision and utilization of models facilities in the school system, in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State there are still serious inhibiting factors encountered in the attempt to revolution Nigeria education. The current educational situation in Nigeria only portrays models in science related subjects and therefore not beneficial to other educational units. There are many challenges that hinder the process of using models in the classroom. However, when effectively used, models have a dramatic effect on teachers and learners. But, where models are not used effectively, they do not add value to teaching and learning. The problem of this study therefore is to find out how the provision of modelsand utilization influence academic performance of students in secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to appraise the use of models and secondary school students’ performance in biology.

The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine the extent biology teachers utilize models to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school.
  2. Ascertain whether the use of models enable students participate effectively in the teaching process of biology in secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether the use of models during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and performance in examinations.
  4. To ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What extent does biology teachers utilize models to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school?
  2. Does the use of models enable students participate effectively in the teaching process of biology in secondary schools.
  3. Does the use of models during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and performance in examinations?
  4. Is there a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of modelsand students’ performance in Biology.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between the use of modelsand students’ performance in Biology.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be of immense benefits to students, teachers, school authorities; educational stakeholders in the following ways:

  1. It will enhance the learning processes of the students and thereby improve on their overall academic achievement.
  2. It will increase the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make learning more interesting.
  3. The study will help to sensitize teachers and staff of secondary schools who teach biology of the important roles in promoting the application of models in teaching and learning. This is because it will provide a basis for them to understand the need for their complimentary roles in encouraging and supporting the application of models aids.
  4. The will further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the importance or otherwise of the use of models in teaching and learning. This is because the findings from this study may require taking a decision by the secondary school authorities whether to refuse models use in learning curriculum or to modify expunge or discontinue with the existing teaching methods.
  5. It will help to create awareness for state and federal ministry of education as policy makers in secondary schools of the need to infuse the use of models as a core teaching instructional aid in the curricula of secondary schools and impress upon them to provide explicit strategy for enforcing the use of models materials in teaching and learning.

1.7 Scope of Study

This study is structured to focus on the use of models and secondary school students’ performance in biology. The study will be conducted in 3 selected secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Hence, biology teachers and students will serve as respondents for this study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Model Defined

Models are simplified representations of more complex systems which enables scientists simplify the knowledge they acquire for easy understanding thereby making models very essential and indispensable in scientific research and communication.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the use of models and secondary school students’ performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the use of models and secondary school students’ performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent biology teachers utilize models to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school; ascertain whether the use of models enable students participate effectively in the teaching process of biology in secondary schools; find out whether the use of models during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and performance in examinations; and ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were biology teachers and students of six selected secondary schools in Nsit Atai Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Biology teachers utilizes models as frequent as possible to facilitate the effective teaching and learning of biology in secondary school.
  2. The use of models enable students participate effectively in the teaching process of biology in secondary schools.
  3. There is a significant relationship between the use of modelsand students’ performance in Biology.
  4. The use of models during the teaching process of biology improves students learning outcome and performance in examinations.
  5. There is a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. It is the educators’ primary responsibility to design engaging and nurturing learning environment that will help the students attain their maximum potential.
  2. The students especially, young learners would need their teacher to provide guidance and to facilitate the learning journey. This teacher should know when to relinquish the control and little by little allow the learners to gain more autonomy to express their learning among their peers and to the teacher. This is possible when the teacher will always consider the needs of the students at all times.
  3. The school principal should monitor the teachers’ learning media, especially Biology teachers, as an effort to improve students’ academic engagement.
  4. Training activities on learning models/approach should be carried out more frequently, especially related to biological materials.

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