Modeling Of Gas Pollution From Ilorin Animal Waste Dumpsite

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering

Modeling Of Gas Pollution From Ilorin Animal Waste Dumpsite


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statements of the problems
  • 1.3 Aim and objectives
  • 1.3.1 Aim
  • 1.3.2 Objectives
  • 1.4 Scope of research
  • 1.5 Definition of terms
  • 1.5.1 Trace gas
  • 1.5.2 Pollution
  • 1.5.3 Animal waste

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Carbon dioxide emission
  • 2.2 Methane emission
  • 2.3 Nitrous Oxide Emission
  • 2.4 Non Point Pollution
  • 2.5 Pollution from animal waste harms
  • 2.6 Waste management practices should be improve
  • 2.7 Data sources and Limit

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Description of study area

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Data Obtained from the field

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Data Obtained for day 1
  • Table 2: Data Obtained for day 2
  • Table 3: Data Obtained for day 3
  • Table 4: Data Obtained for day 4
  • Table 5: Data Obtained for day 5
  • Table 6: Compress Field Value Results In ppm
  • Table 7: Compress field value results in tons
  • Table 8: Output of IWM tools
  • Table 9: Comparism of output

Chapter One


Introduction

Atmospheric emission of methane (CH4) associated with animal waste are worldwide problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment.

CH4 are important green house gases that are produced anthropogenic ally but mainly by plant, animal waste and from natural geothermal source. Other green house gases include CO2, NH3.

‘Greenhouse’ gases are gases that have a molecular structure such that they obstruct the radiation of heat from the earth, thus acting like the glass or membrane over a greenhouse. The gases that are most effective at absorbing this radiated heat are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons and sculpture hexafluoride.

The above ‘greenhouse’ gases have differing abilities to absorb the heat radiated from the earth and are assigned factors (their ‘global warning potential’) based on their absorbing ability relative to that of carbon dioxide. The factors depend on the lifetime over which the effect of the gases is assessed. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere may initially have a large effect but over a longer period the effect will be much less important.


1.1 Background of Study

Waste products are valuable resources as fertilizer and suitable to be applied to crops and pastures. However. When concentrated into relatively small geographical area or applied in excessive amounts, waste can have detrimental environmental effects. This can results in enhanced CO2, CH4 and NS0 emission to the atmosphere influencing global warming and destruction of the ozone layer (mosier, 1998). These gases have long atmospheric lifetimes, are consequently fairly well mixed and therefore of global as well as local or regional importance. They represent a most serious threat to global climate in terms of greenhouse effect and their overall radioactive forcing from pre industrial time to date were estimated as 1.85,0.15 and 0.1.2Wm-2 respectively. Anthropogenic sources account for 70% of the total annual release of CH4, 16% of which coming from production of waste (IPCC, 1994). Soil microbial processes accesses account for 65% of the total N2) source strength (5 to 5 TG year-1). These researches measured the emission of NH3 using ToxiREA pro and modeling to estimate emission by Gabi 6 tools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Scientist agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would led to significant climate and whether changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of season.

  1. Rising temperature would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies if fresh wash water as flooding occurs along coastlines world and salt water reaches inland.
  2. Many of the world endangered species would become extinct as raise in temperature would change their habitat.
  3. Millions of people also will be affected especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on land for sustenance living.
  4. Certain vector bam diseases carried by animals or insects such as malaria would become wide spread as warmer conditions expand their range.

1.3 Aims and Objectives:

Aim

The aim of the project is to model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite.

Objectives:
  1. Pollution locator (animal waste)
  2. To quantity emission rate of trace gases from animal waste dump site in Ilorin
  3. To understand better trace gases emission level from pollution and its effect on global warning
  4. To model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite

1.4 Scope of Research:

  1. To locate animal waste dumpsite in Ilorin
  2. To detect and monitor trace gases from located dumpsite using Toxireapro gas monitor
  3. To analyze the effect of trace gases from animal dumpsite to Ilorin environment
  4. And to model the effect of trace gases on the environment

1.5 Definition of Terms

1.5.1 Trace Gas:

A trace gas is a gas which makes up less 1% by volume of the Earth’s atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%). The most abundant trace gas at 0.934% is argon. Water vapor also occurs in the atmosphere with highly variable abundance

1.5.2 Pollution:

This is the process of making air, water soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use.

1.5.3 Animal Waste:

Is a material composed of excreta with or without animal dung, collected from poultry and other animals except human.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Integrated waste management (IWM) tools model the trace gas pollution from Ipata in Ilorin animal waste dump site. The study concludes that carbon IV oxide (CO2) among the three trace gases that was model is of higher concentration in that environment. The study also shows that carbon ii oxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission rate from the animal waste dump site is not of threat to the global warming.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations were made based on the above conclusions.

  1. Forestation should be practice in this environment to reduce the effect of carbon (iv) oxide.
  2. Environment protection agencies at all level should always model the trace gases in this environment so as to always know its effect on the global warming.
  3. Government should always support the environmental protection agencies in achieving their goals.
  4. Apart from the three (3) gases modeled in this project, more trace gases should be studied to know their environmental impact on global warming.
  5. Environmental protection agencies should be making use of integrate waste management (IWM) tools.

Modeling Of Gas Pollution From Ilorin Animal Waste Dumpsite


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Modeling Of Gas Pollution From Ilorin Animal Waste Dumpsite


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