Microorganism Associated With Spoilage Of Tomatoes (Canned Tomatoes)

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Microorganism Associated With Spoilage Of Tomatoes (Canned Tomatoes)


Abstract


Tomato (solanum lycopersicum), is one of the most important vegetable crop of the solanaceae family, grown all over the world for food and other economic purposes. The microbial spoilage of canned tomato of varying product brands was investigated in this study. It was observed that the total aerobic and anaerobic counts were less than 103 cells which were within acceptable limit. Two of the canned product had no microbial count, while the others had counts varying from 2 x 101 to 5 x 101 for aerobic count of freshly opened tomato, and 1 x 101 to 2 x 101 for anaerobic count.

However, aerobic count of spoilt canned tomato product ranged from 4.2 x 104 to 9.1 x 104 across all six products investigated. Anaerobic count of spoilt canned tomato ranged from 2.5 x 104 to 6.8 x 104. Isolated organisms obtained from spoilt canned tomato samples revealed the presence of Bacillus ploymyxa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, Pseudomonas, sp., Clostridium sporogenes, Bacillus coagulans, Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium sp. These organisms were implicated in the spoilage of canned tomato products sold in Benin City. When these products are consumed immediately after opening, they are safe because the microbial load on fresh product is within acceptable regulatory standard.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Aim And Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Canned Foods
  • 2.3 Fruits Or Vegetable
  • 2.4 Types Of Canned Tomatoes
  • 2.5 Benefits Of Eating Tomatoes
  • 2.6 Nutrition Facts Of Canned Tomatoes

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Sample Collection
  • 3.2 Microbiological Analysis Of Tomato Samples
  • 3.3 Anaerobic Bacteria Counts

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Canned tomatoes are tomatoes usually peeled that are sealed into a canned after having been processed by heat. This product is considered important worldwide (Robinso, et al, 1994). In Nigeria tomato paste is the most important tomato product because of its wide spread use for preparation of various food/menus. It contain on the average about 6.4% total solids, of which 3.5% is invert sugar, 0.5% citric acid,0.6% ash, 0.9% protein, 0.53% crude fibre and about 0.05% fat.

When spoil as a result of the life processes of bacteria, yeast and molds, the sugars are rapidly used up being changes into acetic acid, lactic acid, alcohol and carbon dioxide, the amount of these substances depending on the types of organism which are most active in the particular sample in question.

Until recent years, nearly all the tomato paste consumed in Nigeria was important from European countries with Italy being the leading country. However, today, limited brands are produced locally. Although both the imported and the local brands are available on the market, consumers prefer the former in spite of its relatively higher cost.

In general, adequate heat processing is given to tomato paste to achieve commercial sterility (speck, 1984), but subsequent abusive post-process handling/storage may lead to undesirable microbiological changes (Anon, 1980). It is public knowledge that can of tomato paste often show external evidence of spoilage under tropical retail conditions. In addition, and interestingly, these d effective products are sold (especially to the less informed) at the same cost as the normal (non-defective- product.

The structural systematic approach for the control of food safety “Hazard Analytsis and critical control point-HACCP” identifies, evaluated and controls hazards that are significant for food safety. The control parameters include various factors such as time of harvesting, temperature and moisture during storage, selection of agricultural products prior to processing, decontamination conditions, addition of chemicals at final product storage ((Sango, 1995).

Tomato (lycopersicumesculentum) is an animal plant, having a weak woody stem covered with glistering red iscultivated in many parts of the world. the tomato plant is widely cultivated in many parts of the world and also has a smooth stain. It is green when immature but becomes bright red or yellow as it ripens. These products are considered important worldwide (Robins et al; 1994).

Tomato fruit is a well vegetable eaten raw as salad or for garnishing various foods in Nigeria as well as in many part of the world. The fruit contains high amount of carbohydrate, fat, organic acid, water, minerals, vitamins and pigments(Reddy,2009)

When spoilt as a result of life process of bacteria, yeast and molds, the sugar are rapidly used up being changes into acetic acid lactic acid, alcohol and carbondioxide, the amount of these substances depending on their types of organism which are most activities particular sample in question.

In generally, adequate heat processing is given to tomato paste to achieve commercial sterility (speck 1994), but subsequent abusive post process handling /storage may lead to understand microbiological changes. It is public knowledge that can of tomato paste often show external evidence of spoilage under tropical retail condition (Anon, 1980)

Tomato fruit contains a lot of water which makes them susceptible to spoilage by microorganism. Also, the high water content makes storage and transportation of vegetable difficult. The microorganism reduces not only the nutritional values but also the market value s of tomato fruit. Micro organisms also affect the seller due to the spoilage of tomato.

Hazard analysis and critical control point –HACCP identifies evaluate and control hazards that control or significant for food safety(De Rover, C. 1998)food safety (De Rover, C 1998)

The control of parameter include various factors such as time of harvesting, temperature and moisture during storage, selection of agricultural product prior to processing, decontamination conditions, addition of chemicals at final product storage (Sango, 1995).

Tomatoes were chosen for this study because they are referred to as ready-to-eat food since they are manually processed and many people take tomatoes raw directly or via meals of salad usually served cold. Microbial spoilage and contaminating pathogens on this product poses a serious problem in food safety.

Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens or raw growth of human pathogen on raw fruit and vegetables. There are vew reports of studies on micro-organism associated with spoilage of tomato fruit in Nigeria. Similar research cost of test ripened tomato fruits sold in local markets in Benue State has tended to turn the worry public to patronize spoilt tomato fruit because they are relatively cheap. (Benchat, L.R.:2002).

The study was under taken to isolate and identify micro-organisms that are associated or responsible for the spoilage of canned tomato sold in some market within Benin City. In addition, the study investigated the toxin producing capacity and the susceptibility of micro-organisms to some antibiotics.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Tomatoes are an attractive cash crop for small scale farmers and provide potential source of employment to many rural and urban people. The tomato fruits have been marketed freshly picked from the field and is the best selling fresh market vegetable crop (AVRDC, 2006).

Despite the human need of tomato, damage as a result of post-bacteria spoilage micro-organisms has been of serious concern. Microbial decay is one of the main factors that determine losses and compromises the quality of the produce. The extent of the losses especially through microbial decay has not been quantified in most areas and on this has been quantified the result are short lived.

Periodic surveys may help to understanding the seventy of losses in a specific place and at a specific time. Estimates of post harvest losses in Benue State have of been established. Therefore, the study aims at establishing estimates of post harvest losses in Nigeria, identify pathogens involved in post a harvest decay of tomato fruits and evaluate ways of managing them using crude plant extracts.

Several kinds of synthetic fungicides have been successfully used to control the post harvest decay of fruits and vegetable (Adasaveg et al, 2009, Kanetis et al, 2002). However, there are three major concerns the increasing consumer concern over pesticide residues on foods which are toxic and caranogenic, predominance of fungicide resistance strains of fungi due to excessive use of fungicides.

– Environmental pollution. Therefore there is need for effective means of post harvest disease control that poses less risk to human health and the environment.

Natural plant products and their analoges have been found as important sources of agricultural bio-pesticides which serve as anti-microbial properties of the plant extracts (Cardelina, 1995, Okigbo, 2009). Arokiyaraj et al (2008), (2009), reported that plants are sources of natural pesticides that lead in new pesticide development. Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial components of neem plant leaf, ginger rhizome, and garlic bulb crude extracts on root pathogen of post harvest tomatoes fruits were also targeted in this study.


1.3 Aim And Objectives

The aim of the study is to determine the microorganisms associated with the spoilage of canned tomatoes sold in Benin City.

  1. To isolate microorganism associated with the spoilage of tomatoes.
  2. To identify the isolates using morphological and biochemical characteristics.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the microorganisms associated with the spoilage of canned tomatoes?
  2. What are the isolates using morphological and biochemical characteristics?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study provides important information on the current status, causes of post-harvest losses of tomatoes in Benue State and their management using crude plant extracts. The output is this study will be important in reducing tomato post-harvest losses by improving the efficiency of post-harvest handling due to better post-harvest management strategies.

Natural plant products and their analogues have been foud as important source of agricultural bio-pesticides which serve as anti-microbial properties of the plant extracts (Cardelina, 1995), reported that plant are sources of natural pesticide that leads to new pesticide development.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The results of this present study showed that the spoilt canned tomatoes produced microbial growth including bacteria and fungi. Therefore further studies are necessary to provide information concerning spoilage of canned tomatoes by revealing the nature of contamination. The use of substances with effective antimicrobial effects against spoilage microorganisms is necessary during production of canned food.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

  1. So, both raw and canned tomato should be well protected from contaminants to limit proliferation of some spoilage microbes that can use tomatoes as vehicle of infection.
  2. Also the technology of canning should be improved by taking adequate precautions to ensure safety during the process. Similarly, the nature of microorganism encountered in this study can be used to determine some food preservation systems in the study area. This will enhance nutritive consumption of this food source to promote health.
  3. It is therefore important that farmers should avoid the use of organic manure that contains animal or human faecal matters as fertilizer which was potential habitats for E. coli, Salmonella spp., klebsiellla spp. and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. They should use inorganic fertilizers.
  4. The storage of tomato fruit should be done at a temperature and relative humidity that does not favours the growth of contaminating organisms. Consumption of raw or partially cooked tomato in the form of Sandwich or salad should be avoided since it could predispose the consumer to fungal or bacterial infections.

Microorganism Associated With Spoilage Of Tomatoes (Canned Tomatoes)


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Microorganism Associated With Spoilage Of Tomatoes (Canned Tomatoes)


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