Merger And Acquisition As A Viable Option For Effective Performance Of Banking Industry In Nigeria
The research centered on the merger and acquisition as a viable option for effective performance of banking in Nigeria using United Bank for Africa Pic as a case study. In carrying out the research, two (2) hypothesis were stipulated which basically questioned the significant of merger and acquisition on the performance of banks in Nigeria and the significant impact of merger and acquisition on the job performance of an employee in banking industry. To test these hypothesis, chi-square statistical tool was employed. It was found out that merger and acquisition is a viable option for effective performance of banking in Nigeria and that merger and acquisition has great impact on the job performance of an employee in banking industry. It is recommended that, the central bank of Nigeria should set up an Asset Management Company (AMC), Training and Manpower Development (TMD), and employ the use of information and communication technology to ensure effective consolidation process in banking industry.
1.1 Background of the Study
Mergers and acquisition are consolidation, strategy used to correct the deficiencies in the financial sector. Merger is said to occur where two or more companies combine into one company. One or more company may merge with an existing company or they may merge to form a new company. In merger there is complete amalgamation of the assets and liabilities as well as shareholders’ interest and business of the merging companies while an acquisition on the other hand is an act of acquiring effective control over assets or management of a company by another company without combination of business or companies.
The Nigerian banking sector regulator; Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) employed merger/acquisition as a consolidated instrument to correct the deficiencies in the financial sector in 2005. This was done under the leadership of the then CBN Governor; Professor Charles Soludo. The economic rationale behind this domestic consolidation policy as at this time was highly indisputable. The justifications being that, Nigeria as at this time had 89 banks with 3,382 branches predominantly situated in the urban centers as at June 2004 (Soludo, 2006). Besides, these branches were characterized by structural and operational weaknesses such as; low capital base, dominance of a very few banks, insolvency and illiquidity, overdependence on public sector deposits and foreign exchange trading, poor asset quality and weak corporate governance, low depositors’ confidence, banks that could not effectively support the real sector of the economy and banking sector with credit to the domestic economy at 24% economy and banking sector with credit to the domestic economy at 24%) of GDP compared to African average of 87% and 272% for developed countries (Soludo, 2006). Given these bedeviled circumstances, it became sensible to ensure quick and spontaneous intervention strategies to save the system from total collapse and to improve the performance of the industry. Therefore, the driving forces behind the consolidation (merger and acquisition) agenda included; effective performance of the industry, better risk control, advancement of marketing and product initiatives, improvement in overall credit risk and technology exploitation, effective banking supervision, evolution of a strong and safe banking system, improved transparency and accountability, cost reduction and effective global competition, depositors’ trust among other factors. These drivers were anticipated to improve the operational efficiencies and operations of the players in the banking sector that will survive the consolidation era. However, Forlong (1998) claimed that, merger and acquisition in the banking industry has had more impact on the structure rather than the performance which has been harder to discern.
The decade (1995 and 2005) was particularly traumatic for the Nigeria banking industry, with the magnitude of distress reaching an unprecedented level, thereby making it an issue of concern not only to the regulatory bodies but also to the public. It was this that actually necessitated the need for an overhauling strategy of the entire financial system which made the CBN introduced a very major reform agenda that changed the banking landscape of the country in 2004. The reform was a 13 agenda reform which main thrust was the prescription of a minimum capital base of 25 billion Naira. This reform further led to merger and acquisition in the industry and scaled down the Nigeria banks from 89 to 25 and much later 24. This study aims to evaluate merger and acquisition as a viable option for effective performance of banking industry in Nigeria. It is interested to measure the extent to which this twin strategy has fared among the emerged banks from the consolidation and the attendant effect on the nation’s aggregate economy.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Mergers and acquisitions have become more often associated with lowered morale, job dissatisfaction, unproductive behavior, increased turnover and absenteeism, rather than with increased financial performance as expected. An estimate by Davy et al. (1988), blames “employee problems” as being responsible for one-third to one-half of all merger failures. Therefore, the underlying causes of employee resistance need to be studied carefully because their understanding has the potential of improving merger planning and outcomes. As negative employee reactions are believed to account partially at least for unsuccessful M& As, the interesting question to answer is why mergers and acquisitions trigger negative reactions in employees. We identify two sources: first mergers are a source of profound change for the organization, and change, in any shape or form is likely to be a source of stress for the employees as it places special demands on them.
As it is well recognized, excessive stress increases job dissatisfaction and this, in turn, is associated with a number of dysfunctional outcomes including increased turnover, and absenteeism and reduced job performance. Secondly, the main source of stress in the merger/acquisition process is the uncertainty surrounding organizational and personnel changes that follow them. It is often these uncertainties, rather than the actual changes themselves that are more stressful to employees.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general aim of this research work is to know if merger and acquisition is a viable option for effective performance of banking industry in Nigeria.
The main objective is:
- To examine thoroughly how merger and acquisition impacts on the performance of banks in Nigeria.
- To determine the relationship between the banking and merger/acquisition in the Nigerian banking industry
- To determine the efficiency and effectiveness of merger/acquisition on banks in Nigerian
- To test the effectiveness of merger and acquisition on the employee performance in Nigeria banking industry.
- To determine the impact of merger and acquisition on employment generation
- To determine the relationship between bank lending to the real (private) sector and regulation on the industry.
- To underscore the efficiency of the consolidation exercise presently embarked upon by the Central Bank towards effective banks performance.
1.4 Statement of Research Question
Below are some questions that would be answered during the course of this research works:
- What effect does merger and acquisition has on job performance of an employee?
- Is merger and acquisition a viable option for effective performance in banking industry?
- Does consolidation strategy improve productive behavior in Nigeria banking industry?
- Does merger and acquisition have effect on the turn-over in banking industry?
- Does merger and acquisition enhance employment opportunity in Nigeria?
1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis
To ensure a mere analytical result oriented research, hypotheses are formulated and tested on the research objectives.
The decision criteria are to accept the null hypothesis (Ho) and reject the alternative hypothesis. (Hi) or otherwise based on the result of the test performed. The research hypotheses are stated below:
- Ho: Merger and acquisition has no significant effect on the performance of banking industry in Nigeria.
- H1: Merger and acquisition has significant effect on the performance of banking industry in Nigeria.
- Ho: Merger and acquisition has no significant impact on the job performance of an employee in banking industry.
- H1: Merger and acquisition has significant impact on the job performance of an employee in banking industry.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The research work is significant in that
- It will be very useful to economic watchers and the interested public;
- It will provide some insight into the process of merging and banking administration in the era of reforms.
- It will also help to show how merger and acquisition is responsive to the determination of stable economic growth.
- It will serve as a body reserved knowledge to be referred to by scholars and researchers.
- Provide adequate information on the existing body of knowledge on people’s problem in a merger process.
- It will throw more light on how effective and stable banking have manipulated the lives of numerous countries into paradise on earth through banking reforms.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This research shall focus on United Bank for Africa (UBA) Pie as reference for analyzing the prospects of merger and acquisition as a responsive indicator to the determinant of stability in banking sector.
The constraints to this study are: time, inadequate information, lack of enough literature on this subject and information which are considered confidential were not revealed by some of the staff
1.8 Definition of Terms
A process of firming up the market price following a substantive change in price it is all government securities which it redeems at its own discretion, paying the fixed amount of interest each year until the repayment of the capital.
Is an act of bringing something to complete or perfect. It is a supreme process to fulfill something viable.
A rationalizing or result of reducing cost of industrial production to meet competition especially in the world market.
Combination or joining of two or more industries together to achieve company objectives.
One who owns shares or stock in a corporation or mutual fund. For corporation, along with the ownership comes a right to declared dividends and right to vote on certain company matters, including the board of directors.
Persons, groups, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives, and policies.
The working together of two or more people or group which have a greater total effect than the sum of their individual effect.
The first person to mark out a path for others to follow.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The research centered on the merger and acquisition as a viable option for effective performance of banking in Nigeria using United Bank for Africa Plc as a case study. It determined the relationship between the banking and merger/acquisition in the Nigerian banking industry. it determined the efficiency and effectiveness of merger/acquisition on banks in Nigerian. it tested the effectiveness of merger and acquisition on the employee performance in Nigeria banking industry. it determine the impact of merger and acquisition on employment generation.
The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling techniques, thirty-six (36) participants who are staff in United Bank for Africa Plc was enrolled for the study. A well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of Thirty (30) responses were received and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage as well as frequencies and table. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)
The study shows that the mergers and acquisitions in the banking industry have significantly influenced profitability of commercial banks, earnings per share and dividend per share of shareholders.
Equally important, is the fact that introduction of consolidation through merger and acquisition has brought about changes in ownership structure. It has brought about decentralization of ownership to many shareholders contrary to over centralization of ownership in the hand of few shareholders prior merger and acquisition of commercial banks in Nigeria. More importantly, the merger has helped to curb the problem of illiquidity characterized by the banks trading with customer’s deposits. The idea underlying the consolidation policy is that bank consolidation would reduce the insolvency risk through asset diversification. The study further shows that one of the fall outs of the mergers is the shrinkage in the industry from 89 to 24 banks .Nigeria now have mega banks with huge capital to invest , but it is instructive to note that size and huge capital do not necessarily make a good and sound bank. What makes a sound bank is really how effective and efficient the management of the bank is deploying the available resources. .
Based on the research conducted, the followings conclusions are drawn:
- That Merger and Acquisition is an effective and efficient growth strategy in business organization.
- The turnover of the organizations studied improved after they adopted merger and acquisition.
- There has been efficient allocation of resources and risk reduction arising from management expertise.
- Merger and Acquisition brought about synergic benefit.
Based on the findings of the study and taking cognizance of the importance of the subject matter under study to the business organizations, the researcher was inclined to make the following recommendations:
- That merger and acquisition should be resorted to as it promotes growth especially in the case of business that is not performing well.
- Merger and Acquisition should be adopted as a viable alternative to organizations than failing and folding up with costly consequences to their owners and economy which increases unemployment.
- The management of companies that have adopted merger and acquisition should identify high-risk areas of their business and make sure they receive adequate attention on-an-on going basis. This should be done for strategic positioning.
- There should be a harmonization of corporate culture in companies that are adopting merger and acquisition.
- There should be a system integration of the companies that adopted merger and acquisition as a growth strategy in their business organization to avoid disintegration and collapse of the strategy.
- The central bank of Nigeria should set up an Asset Management Company (AMC), Training and Manpower Development (TMD), and employ the use of information and communication technology to ensure effective consolidation process in banking industry.
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