Menstrual Cycle And It’s Disorder

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


Abstract


The health problems of adolescents are very special. Menstrual disorders such as amenorrhea, abnormal/ excessive uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome are particularly common in adolescent girls. Although menstrual irregularities may be normal during the early postmenarchal years, pathological conditions require proper and prompt management. This study reviews menstrual cycle and menstrual disorders. The knowledge of the normal menstrual cycle is very important in managing these disorders properly.


Section One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Menstruation, is the periodical flow of blood from the uterus through the cervix and out through the vagina, and it is also called a “period”. Menstruation occurs during the years between puberty and menopause. Monthly menstrual periods are a normal part of a womanโ€™s life. Menstruation is essential for the renewal of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy.The process of degeneration of endometrial bed and removal of the same though vagina occurs at regular interval andis called the menstrual cycle.

The menstrual cycle provides important body chemicals, called hormones, to keep healthy. It also prepares body for pregnancy each month. A cycle is counted from the first day of 1 period to the first day of the next period. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days long. Cycles can range anywhere from 21 to 35 days in adults and from 21 to 45 days in young teen [2]. It is intended to discuss about this physiological process and associated complications in detail in the following sections including traditional ways to get relief from such discomforts highlighting the herbs and home remedies commonly used.

The median age of menarche is 12.9 years.2 The length of the normal menstrual cycle is highly variable. Normal menstrual cycles are characterized by a cycle length of 28 days (+ 7 days), a duration of flow of 4 days (+ 2 days), and a blood loss of 40 mL (+ 20 mL).3 The mean volume of menstrual blood loss is 43 mL, with a normal range of 20-80 mL.4

Abnormal/irregular menstrual patterns are common during the first 2 years after menarche and the variability in cycle length is greater during adolescence than adulthood; thus greater irregularity is acceptable if significant anemia or hemorrhage is not present.


1.2 Statement of the problem

Menstrual disorders are a common problem in adolescents. These disorders are often the source of anxiety for the patients and the families. The common menstrual disorders in adolescents are amenorrhea, abnormal/excessive uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome.

Cycles are abnormal if they are longer than 8 to 10 days in duration or if more than 80 mL of blood loss occurs, particularly after the first 2 years from the onset of menarche. It is very difficult to quantify the blood loss however; soaking more than 25 pads or 30 tampons during a menstrual period is usually abnormal.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to assess menstrual cycle and its disorders. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Examine the causes of menstrual disorders
  2. Examine the types of menstrual disorders
  3. Examine the remedies to menstrual disorders.

1.4 Significance of the study

This study is carried out on menstrual cycle and its disorders. The study will be of benefit to the female gender. This study will help in detecting disorders in the menstrual cycle of a woman. These disorders can be easily detected by the reduction of blood flow or the increase in the duration of flow (number of days).

This study will also be of benefit to researchers and academics as it will be used as a material guide for those carrying out research related to the present study.


Section Three


Conclusion And Recommendations

3.2 Conclusion

Menstrual disorders like amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome and abnormal uterine bleeding are very common during the early postmenarchal years. Proper understanding of the normal menstrual cycle is necessary to pinpoint the causes of these disorders and aids in the judicial management of them. An accurate diagnosis obtained by thorough history, complete physical examination and focused investigations in these adolescents is mandatory to direct appropriate management.

In this review we discussed about medicinal plants and some alternative home remedies for the treatment of menstrual disorder. Menstrual problem is a chronic disease which leads to various complications on long standing. Allopathic medicines are not effective in treating the disease leading to various adverse effects. Hence medicinal plants are the best alternative for the treatment of menstrual problem.


3.2 Recommendations

  1. The physician must always consider the adolescent’s sensitivity and vulnerability in evaluating and treating various disorders of menstruation.
  2. Workshops, seminars and lecturers should be held to raise womenโ€™s general information about the physiology of menstruation and its relationship with hormonal changes are highly recommended.
  3. There should be a need to strongly educate women on menstrual disorder and the need to seek expert managements in severe cases.
  4. Self-management and self-medication should be strongly discouraged as some students tend to get involved in drug abuse and misuse.

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