The Menace Of Vote Buying In Nigeria Electoral System; Issues, Effect, Causes And Solution

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

The Menace Of Vote Buying In Nigeria Electoral System; Issues, Effect, Causes And Solution


Abstract


This study was carried out on the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect, causes and solution. The study is was specifically set to determine the level of vote buying in the Nigerian election, appraise the causes of vote buying in Nigeria and determine the effects of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident in Epe Local Government of Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of vote buying in the Nigerian election is high. Furthermore, the causes of vote buying in Nigeria includes: economic problems, high rate of poverty, weak and unfunctional courts, Problem of temporary staff and lack of discipline. Therefore, it is recommended that the electoral process should be devoid of sentiment, favoritism, fraud, violence and intimidation. Anyone who violates electoral procedure and policies should immediately be brought to book. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The issue of vote buying had in recent times constituted a fundamental phenomenon in the Nigerian political system. The desire to achieve a democratic system of government has been overtaken by the issue of vote buying. This phenomenon is fast weakening the democratic institution of the economy. The nature at which votes are being traded for money aptly describes Nigeria’s electoral politics as “cash-and-carry democracy”. This situation projects grave danger for the future of the Nigerian political system if not urgently addressed. The concept of vote buying denote “the exchange of financial and material reward by a voter to a political party or candidate to cast a vote in his favour or even abstain from voting so as to increase the candidates chance of winning the elections. The issue of vote buying is therefore seen as a contract between the voter and the buying candidate or political party. Recent experience shows that vote buying is conducted during voter registration, the nomination period, campaigning and election day. But essentially dominant during the election for the purpose of casting votes for the buying candidate. The scenario is compared to a market where the voters are the sellers and the political candidate the seller and the instrument of exchange is the money. The money for buying the vote is paid to the voter before or after the casting of vote with evidence that the vote has been casted. The value of the vote is determined by level of desperation of politicians to win in a locality. Although money and other valuables can be used to effectuate vote buying, political actors have adopted two main approaches to buying votes for Election Day. The vote buying practice, which is contrary to the electoral laws, has in recent times constituted a challenge to the electoral system in Nigeria. The study seeks to appraise the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect, causes, and solution.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of vote buying is fast destroying the democratic principles of Nigeria. It has eroded the confidence of the people on the true leadership of the country. The menace has undermined the integrity of the Nigerian people. It is a deliberate closure of the exercise of the free display of the will of the voters. This situation undermines the credibility, integrity and validity of the election. Vote buying leads to bad government; because the process which led to the emergence of the leader is not constitutionally right the electorate may not have the right to question it when things go bad and the promises made not fulfilled.

The consequences sometimes far more exceed the money received for casting the votes and it is the economy that suffers the children and the future. These monies are subsequently recovered from the system by the politicians as cost incurred for coming into power. The problem confronting the study is to Appraise the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect and solution.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main study objective is to investigate the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect and solution; While the specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To determine the level of vote buying in the Nigerian election.
  2. To appraise the causes of vote buying in Nigeria.
  3. To determine the effects of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of vote buying in the Nigerian election?
  2. What are the causes of vote buying in Nigeria?
  3. What are the effects of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant effect of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process.

Ha: There is a significant effect of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The current wave of electoral malpractices is fast weakening the democratic principles in the country. This has resulted to a high level of vote buying. The studies seek to call the attention of stakeholders to arise and tackle the menace with the view of reviving democratic institution and good governance in the country. It shall also be useful to government policy makers.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of the menace of vote buying in Nigeria; issues, effect, causes, and solution. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Epe Local Government of Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Vote Buying Defined

The concept of vote buying denote “the exchange of financial and material reward by a voter to a political party or candidate to cast a vote in his favour or even abstain from voting so as to increase the candidates chance of winning the elections. The issue of vote buying is therefore seen as a contract between the voter and the buying candidate or political party. Recent experience shows that vote buying is conducted during voter registration, the nomination period, campaigning and election day.

Electoral Violence Defined

The act of conflict, physical assault, destruction, intimidation

Intimidation Defined

The act of exacting pressure on the electorate so that they vote in a particular direction.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect, causes and solution. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the menace of vote buying in Nigeria electoral system; issues, effect, causes and solution. The study is was specifically set to determine the level of vote buying in the Nigerian election, appraise the causes of vote buying in Nigeria and determine the effects of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are resident in Epe Local Government of Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The level of vote buying in the Nigerian election is high.
  2. The causes of vote buying in Nigeria includes: economic problems, high rate of poverty,weak and unfunctional courts, Problem of temporary staff and lack of discipline.
  3. The effects of vote buying in the Nigerian electoral process includes: vote buying mitigates the idea democracy, poor leadership structure, increases corruption, conflicts and bad government.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. There is urgent need for political education in Nigeria especially the people in the riverine and rural areas. Political education should not be limited to the school system. Both formal and informal approaches should be adopted to orientate the citizens on the need for active participation in the political system. There is the need for mass political enlightenment through the media, adult education programme and civil associations. The citizens should be conscious of the danger of selling vote.
  2. The electoral process should be devoid of sentiment, favoritism, fraud, violence and intimidation. Anyone who violates electoral procedure and policies should immediately be brought to book.
  3. Reduction of poverty can be an effective strategy to reducing vote buying. Since the findings concluded that there is a relationship between income (economic status) and voters’ decisions, governments should make it a point of duty to reduce poverty by enhancing wealth creation and redistribution. This can be done by creating or providing sustainable jobs, especially for people in rural areas.
  4. Enforcement of the existing electoral regulations on party finances including campaign programmes should be implemented.
  5. Deploy the right person for the right job. Electoral offices should be selected with the person who is best known for honesty and clean of corruptions.

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