Medical Surgical Nursing (A Case Study Of A Patient With Diabetes Right Foot Ulcer)
1.1 Background of the Study
This case study was carried on Alhaja A.H, a 60years old trader who has right foot ulcer, patient was brought to accident and emergency unit on 30th march, 2017 with clinical diagnosis of right foot ulcer and later transfer to ward 2.
Approximately 15 to 20 percent of estimated 16million persons in the united state with diabetes mellitus will be hospitalized with a foot complication and also estimated in Nigeria (Harrison, 2012).
Mustapha (2010) define diabetes mellitus as an endocrine disorder in which there is deficiency or lack of insulin production leading to metabolic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein and characterized by hyperglycemia, dehydrative vascular changes and neuropathy.
Foot ulcers are significant complication of diabetes mellitus and after precede lower- extremity amputation. The most frequent underlying etiologies are neuropathy, trauma, deformity, higher planter pressure and peripheral arterial disease. Thorough systemic evaluation and categorization of foot ulcer help guild appropriate treatment (Fryberg, 2011)
Foot disorder such as ulceration, infection and gangrene are the leading causes of hospitalization in patient with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately many of those patients will require amputation with the foot or above the ankle as a consequence of severe infection or peripheral ischemia (Mustapha, 2011).
Approximately 85 percent of the diabetes – related lower extremity amputation are preceded by foot ulcer. Sharp debridement, management of underlying infection, and ischemia as well as relief of pressure using total contact cast, removable cast walker or half shoe are mainstay of initial treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. The aim of therapy should be early intervention to allow prompt healing of the lesion and prevent recurrence once it is healed.
Multidisciplinary management programs that focus on prevention, education, regular foot examination, aggressive intervention and optimal use of significant reductions in the incidence of lower extremity amputation. (Fryberg,2011)
Purpose of the Study
- To critically look at concept of diabetes complication i.e. diabetes mellitus foot ulcer, causes, sign and symptoms, predisposing factor, prevention and management of the condition
- To provide adequate care for diabetic mellitus foot ulcer patient and prevent further complication that can arise from diabetes foot ulcer such as amputation and even death
- To increase knowledge in medical field from latest discovery and management of diabetes foot ulcer. Hence preventing or minimize the rate at which other complication arise
- To create awareness about the disease and health educate the people on how it can be detected and prevented
- To serves as an award of certificate in general nursing as required by the nursing and midwifery council of Nigeria
Significance Of the Study
The importance of this study cannot be overemphasized based on the following point
- This care study provide patient the opportunity to have close access to health practitioner and hence benefitting from therapeutic health education
- It increase nurse-patient relationship by improving an individualized care for the patient
- It will serve as base line for further studies about diabetes mellitus foot ulcer and it will help in the reduction of mortality rate in patient with diabetes mellitus foot ulcer, thereby improving economic standard of the patient
- It provide information necessary to carryout research for junior nurse who might be faced with the challenge of care study in the course of his/her study
- It enhances the nurse ability to give an appropriate health education to the people as the nurse is better equip with updated knowledge.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This care study was carried out on a 65years old woman Alhaja A.H who was admitted on 28th march 2017 in to the female medical ward (ward2) of the Kwara state general hospital Ilorin, with diagnosis of right foot ulcer secondary to diabetes mellitus
Different literature was reviewed based on the patient condition under the following headings:- definition of the diabetes mellitus, causes, incidence, anatomy and physiology of the condition, clinical manifestation, complication, prognosis, brief discussion on diabetic foot ulcer and some effective management of this disease condition. The patient data was collected and documented to assist in the diagnosis and ensure effective management, the patient was enlighten on the pre-disposing factor of the disease as well as the clinical manifestation and she was duely cared for. Health education on the need for follow up care, subsequently. Patient was discharges on 13/4/2017. She is to visit the out patient department twice a week. The patient home was visited and patient was advised on importance of environmental and personal hygiene
Conclusively, it can be understood that diabetes mellitus foot ulcer does not just happen, it is a complication that arise from poorly managed diabetes mellitus which bring about inadequate blood flow to the peripheral tissue leading to necrosis hence diabetic foot ulcer . it was also revealed that adequate management of diabetes mellitus can prevent the complication into diabetes foot ulcer
This write up contains useful information as regard to the cause, the symptoms and treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- The attention of the government should and other body concern and charged with health issue are adviced to developed qualitative health facility so as to solve the problems of inadequate access of health facility as this will provide adequate means of improving the health needs of the populace
- The government should increase the supply of essential drugs to the hospital in order to hasten the treatment of diabetes mellitus so has to prevent further complication such as diabetes foot ulcer
- The community member should be health educated on the importance of regular hospital visitation for check- up, this will help in early detection of any disorder of the body system
- Health education on the cause and treatment of this disease should be encouraged
- The would site should be dressed using bio- dress to enhance healing
Finally, the writer suggests that this care study should be kept in the school library for student nurse to assist
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