Medical Expert System For Diagnosis And Prescription (A Case Study Of Federal Medical Centre Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Abstract


This project work focuses on computerization of medical diagnosis and prescription system to increase medical services and enhancement of logistic efficiency.

The aim is to produce approach which through computer programs and files carefully created, written, designed and integrated from an application package that accepts both physical states of patients. Disease symptoms (input data) and as such one which is able to store, access, manipulates as much information as possible.

The ease and speed of processing, storage and versatility of the computer make it possible for easy diagnosis and prescription interestingly; the end results is the ability analysis of the disease by producing the input data and provide summaries of the total treatment bill, lab result and other disease investigation and confirmation for a particular patient.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 scope of the study
  • 1.6 Limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definition of Computer
  • 2.3 Expert System and its Origin
  • 2.4 Concept of Computer in Medical Diagnosis
  • 2.5 Professional Medical Computing Facilities
  • 2.6 Epidemic Information in Diagnosis
  • 2.7 Medical expert system

Chapter Three

System Analysis And System Design

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Methodology
  • 3.3 Analysis of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri
  • 3.4 Organizational Structure of the Hospital
  • 3.5 Sources of Data
  • 3.6 Procedure in the current system
  • 3.7 Problems associated to the current system
  • 3.8 Files and records
  • 3.9 New system designs
  • 3.10 Input /output specification
  • 3.11 system flowchart
  • 3.12 Program flowchart

Chapter Four

System Implementation

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Justification of the programming language
  • 4.3 Program Implementation
  • 4.4 System Requirement
  • 4.5 How to run the software
  • 4.6 Training and Retraining of staff
  • 4.8 Maintenance Details

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II
  • Appendix III
  • Source Code

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

With the recent development and proliferation of information technology, it is obvious that computer is indispensable tool in every aspect of human activities.

The use of computer simplified the way businesses are done, it touches and changes our daily lives in a profound way. Therefore, computer in medical is guided by a sense of purpose rationally aimed at automatically computerized system and commitment is more likely to have a successful outcome in terms of diagnostic and drugs prescription role of a doctor in the hospital than a situation whose future is left to guess work and chance.

The essence of this research is to establish a system that will represent scare
human expertise, which is a system that will do diagnosis and drug prescription because some Nigeria hospital fails after a given number of successful operations.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Computer technology is found in diagnosis and drug prescription ways, ranging from routine to the highly sophisticated works. Just as the versatile computer serves various purpose in business and industry, it performs many functions in the health care field. Medical researcher stressed computer technology in several areas and have recorded some developments in areas like medical statistics, diagnosis and drug prescription, data capitalization, simulation and medical care and astronomic increase in patients’ treatment in various hospitals made proper view of the current method of medical service for a scientific and efficient approach in dealing with patients problems more especially in case of emergency.

This has been to some extent since the introduction of computer to the field. To eradicate poor health maintenance, the introduction of medical expert for diagnosis and drug prescription has other fundamental group. This research has other details of medical expert system for diagnosis and drug prescription for patients.

Routine Application

The use of medical expert system for diagnosis and prescription and taking medical records necessary as the computer saves the doctors and nurses valuable time. In health, computer serves as a supplement to patients that need more efficient and mechanized system.

Computer As Monitoring Equipment

The speed at which a patient arrives at the hospital cannot be overcome by ordinary manual system. Moreover, the diagnosis and treatment to the patient need more efficient and mechanized system.

In some advanced countries, computers used in hospitals to monitor past surgical and critical patients in intensive care unit.

The patient is connected to computer monitored sensing device which can detect any sharp rise or fall in temperature pulse rate as a means of fasting the diagnosis system an treatment of diseases in medical care.

Medical Research

Computer is used in medical research on cancer, heart disease, stroke, drug addiction, muscular string, and innumerable other medical problems.

The computer in medicine will be a substitute for good intelligence judgment, common sense, but it is a capital assistant to conscientious doctors and nurses with many patients and little times.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In the medical profession, the problems associated with doctors can be evidently seen as it affects various areas of human and social endeavors,

Therefore, this research found computer as a microcosm to develop and recamp human life in our hospitals. Clearly stated, after a careful study of the old medical service, the following are seen as some of the problems affecting the hospital.

Time:

The time of the of old system federal medical centers services is slow and they are affecting the hospital.

Cost:

The researcher gathered that there are high cost of personnel maintenance in the hospital to the government; some of these personnel are not serious with their work while others repeat a particular task.

Errors:

There is always a problem of errors are manual in nature as an outcome of the old system, also, human activities are subjected to errors, and medical doctors are no exception, patients are carefully mis-manipulated and correct diagnosis and prescription are not performed as a result of this loss of life.

Daily Work Required:

There is an inability of the institution to cope with the daily work lead as complicated nature of operation is involved. There is no guarantee of storage and retrieval of medical information and analysis of patients’ treatment.

Absenteeism:

The researcher described the habitual absence from place of duty as one of the facts affecting the medical treatment of patients in the hospital. The doctors, nurses and other medical and non-medical personnel feel less concerned and take being absent as granted in their duty post.

Ineffective Statistical Data:

The old system of processing and storing of information do not appreciate the use of statistical information to solve medical cases mostly in prescription and its application is generally in accessible.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

Applying computer services will facilitate medical diagnosis and drug prescription. Therefore to eradicate these problems this research is primarily aimed at investigating, analyzing and designing an expert system for diagnosis and drug prescription which will have the capability of:

  1. Interacting (interfacing) with the doctor and patient as a means of speeding up the sorting, processing of the input which will generally assist medical doctors in the treatment and prescription of drugs.
  2. Providing accurate diagnosis to patients in the hospital.
  3. Bringing to an end the rodent attacks of patients document and introduce totally the use of CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) system of storing information and documents which is in accessible by rodents.
  4. Bring up an efficient database for the advancement of medical research and analysis to take over the conventional paper system etc.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The study has its significance as to demonstrate that the speed, accuracy and efficiency of computer can be used as a tool in modern health care practice will be a great advancement compare to the old system of processing the study is also important that it will illustrate the diagnostic and prescriptive role of area of high intellectual requirement as regard to accuracy, effectiveness and documentation.


1.5 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the system or study is to develop medical expert system or software for diagnosis and drug prescription in the hospital management where the doctor, using computerized diagnosis software to examine the patient current state by asking the patient some questions which will serve as an input to the system to prescribe drug for patient. It will help the doctor to prepare drug for future and develop the type of drug future need for a hospital. This will assist with the risk and uncertainty of the future in which it is expecting to influence.


1.6 Limitations Of The Study

The limitation of the system or study is the difficulties encountered in getting necessary information and relevant facts about the existing system from inquisitive and critical management, staff, and patients in the hospital.

Also, the cost of storing for information from relevant journals, materials and doctors also is exorbitant; it also involved lack of computer literate/ scientists, the board of medical directors, choice and qualification of medical directors.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Computer System:

A computer is an electronic device that is capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing prescribed operations on the data accepted and supplying the result of those operations. That is to say, computer is an electronic device; which can accept data, process the data and produce result/ information automatically under the control program.

Central Processing Unit:

(CPU) the CPU is the brain of the computer. It contains the arithmetic and logical unit (ALU), the control unit and a group of registers performing specific functions.

Monitor:

This is a place of electrical equipment which displays images generated from the video output of devices such as computers, without producing a permanent record.

Motherboard:

The motherboard, sometimes referred to as the system board is the central piece of computers it contains the processor, the RAM, and the expansion devices; it is the main circuit board of a microcomputer.

Database:

Database is a collection of data organized so that data can be accessed and used by numerous applications. It is a collection of information that is organized so that it can be accessed with ease, managed and updated.

Application Packages:

These are already written programs or suit of programs written for particular application area. They are set of programs designed to perform certain applications, which conform to internationally accepted rules. E.g. Word processing packages, spreadsheet packages, graphic packages etc.

Modem:

This is an acronym for modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information.

Window:

Window is a graphically based operating system. It is an operating system that uses dialog boxes, command buttons, icons and a mouse controlled pointer to interact with computer users thereby making it easier for them to use and operate.

Field:

A field is the smallest unit of information about an entity. It could also be said to be the smallest entity to be processed as a single unit.

Records:

A record is an interrelated column comprising one row of data entries in the table of data. Or a collection of field representing complete information about an entity in relation to a particular application

Computer Programming:

programming is the act of writing detailed instructions sets or codes in a specified language which directs the computer to solve a specific task.

Updating:

There is every need to advance information thus research discovered that is impossible to update information in the old system. This has it advantage as congesting the file cabinet. For computer to carryout a specified task, it must be programmed using a particular programming language. However, before programs are written, a proper planning of the solution to the task is first sort, before the codes are written.

Data:

Data is an unprocessed information; a raw fact. It can be in form of symbol, graph, chart and maps, routes and codes that represent information.

Byte:

This is the smallest addressable unit of the computer. It is regarded as a group of standard eight (8) bits. This is also length of characters that can be taken in a field.

Master File:

This is a file that has a reasonable amount of permanency. It is periodically updated to show current transactions. The record in the master file is known as master records. It contains record of permanent and static in nature. Once the master file is updated a new master file emerges. And also by updating a master file, there must before many files generate. The need for keeping master files is:

  1. For security reasons
  2. For reference purposes
Virus:

Virus is basically a malicious program with different effects ranging from modifying, deleting or stealing data. Some viruses also give the control of the computer over to their creator through the internet.

Anti-Virus:

Anti – virus software is a software designed to keep the computer free from computer viruses and worm. It does so by scanning the computer file system looking for known virus if a virus is found, it will inform you and then take steps to remove the virus threat.

Examples of anti-virus software are:

  1. Avast
  2. Norton anti- virus
  3. Avera
  4. Kaspersky
  5. Mc afee
  6. Quick hill etc.
Medical Terms
Medical Doctor:

This is defined as a person trained in medical science. He works as a doctor in the hospital .it can also be defined as one who coordinates, control and supervises medical scientist and every other level of medication in the hospital.

Medicine:

According to the Royal English dictionary, medicines the science or practice of healing, anything used as a means of healing or soothing pain.

Epidemics:

a disease among people, falling on a great number of the people at the same time.

Diagnosis:

the act of discovering or identifying the exact cause an illness or an problem, knowing one thing from the other.

Patient:

A person who is receiving medical treatment especially in a hospital from a doctor.

In-Patient:

a patient who is admitted to the hospital at the ground of sickness for treatment.

Out Patient:

this is defined as a patient who visits hospital for medical treatment, but not admitted into the hospital.

Nurse:

A person who take care of sick or injured people, usually in the hospital.

Ophthalmic:

Connected with the eye referring to the medical treatment of the eye.

Ophthalmologist:

A doctor who studies and treats the disease of the eyes.

Psychiatrist:

A doctor who studies and treats mental illness.

Phrenology:

The study of the shape of the human head, which some people think is a guide to person’s character.

Physiotherapy:

Treatment of disease, injury or weakness in the joints or muscles by exercise, message and the use of light and heat.

Drug:

A substance used as a medicine or used in a medicine.

Cardiologist:

A doctor who studies and treats heart diseases.

Prescription:

An official piece of paper on which a doctor writes the types of medicine a patient should have and which enables the patient to get it from chemists shop or drugstore.

Medical Record:

This is where all the present and past records about a patient are kept. It is where the day to day activities of the hospital is recorded, most important the in patient. It is where the out-patient card for doctor’s diagnosis and prescription is issued to the patients and also where the case note folder file containing valuable information about a patient is kept.

Security:

The safe guard of information pertaining to patient confidential operations of the old system and also information which is supposes to be left to patients personal uses are exposed.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter draws to the conclusion of this work, recommendations, references and appendix.


5.2 Summary

In summary, computer, seemingly drives the world today. From the computer in our hospital to the PC at home to the large super computer that help predicts the weather, computers are everywhere. More so, we should understand that the essence of this work is for patient in the hospital. This is made possible because of the computer in medical profession.


5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion, nearly every department in the hospital and almost all the hospital in the world depends on the computer for land scanning, child delivery, monitoring patients and detecting patient state of health and also in the diagnostic prescriptive role in proving that the society particularly in the medical care and alsl we have grown dependently upon them to help us in many ways. Therefore, computer will continue to be applied in the medical care.


5.4 Recommendation

The project is uncompleted without the significant of a computer system in every sensitive area like disease diagnosis and drug prescription (medical expert system for diagnosis and drug prescription) in the name of the above I therefore declare the following recommendations for great successful implementation in different organization, establishment and hospital.

  1. Institution and hospitals of large and small size particularly in university teaching hospitals should appreciate the installation of a computer based system for effective profits without wasting time which will guarantee immediate response of patient needs and reduce doctors’ labour/human labour.
  2. There should be an effective training and employment of personnel for proper handling and achieving the objective goals.
  3. Adequate and proper documentation of the new system, for the purpose of rectifying any malfunction during implementation. Since the system needs to be dynamic.
  4. In the view of the research, I recommend that standard current system should be adequate such systems like 80486, 80586, Pentium 3,4 system with CD-ROM and high processing speed and windows 7 operating system.
  5. Henceforth, this research is a center point from which further advancement will take its root. Therefore my inability to include other aspects of the processor is not only the constraint of the time and cost, but for my colleagues in the field of endeavor to come with a gigantic and concentralized ideology.

Medical Expert System For Diagnosis And Prescription (A Case Study Of Federal Medical Centre Owerri)


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