Media As A Tool For Promoting Arts And Culture Through Tourism Development In Nigeria
This research work examines media as a tool for promoting arts and culture through tourism development in Nigeria. Thus three objectives and research questions were formulated and the Survey research was used in the methodology of this work and the questionnaire were distributed and the findings were made. The media are potent tools in mass mobilization, information dissemination, entertainment, socialization, integration, cultural promotion amongst others. The media plays a major role in cultural promotion and preservation at all levels. Cultural promotion entails that the media transmit and showcase the cultural heritage of a people to others such that those who are not aware of it become fully aware and also acquaint the incoming generation with their culture. Most of these cultures have gone into extinction or tilting towards going into extinction as a result of non-transmission to incoming generation. Nigeria is vast in tourism potentials, historic towns and highly diversified cultural heritage embodying people‟s traditions, religion and belief systems, festivals and ceremonies. The capacity of these symbolic representations of people‟s values, identity, and heritage to earn Nigeria substantial revenue is not in doubt. However, the inability to transform them to tourism assets has been a major concern to stakeholders.
1.1 Background of Study
Tourism has become a large global industry expanding rapidly not only in developed but also in developing countries. 10.2% of the world’s GNP had been taken by the tourism sector as related activities (tourism and general travel) and it is expected to grow by 3.6% to in 2017 (WTTC, 2016). Its split on a global economy has been increasing significantly, and it is faster than global output (United Nation world tourism organization report, 2005).
However, activities in most of the tourist destinations are less than the expected ones (WTR, 2007). In line with using already existing sites, developing nations like Nigeria by considering potential tourism attractions promotion and development activities should be done simultaneously to increase the benefits of the sector at large. According to Ashley et al. (2001), one of the main challenges for tourism to position itself as a key economic sector in developing countries is using only the existing tourism resource. There is a necessity for government policies and donor-financed tourism development programs that attempt to develop brand new potential sites in the tourism industry. Contrary to this idea, developing nations without expecting donation can achieve success if different actors of tourism jointly design least cost promotion and development strategies facilitated by the media (Andreea & Ioncica, 2012). According to Benson (2013), media are imperative for frontline investments for sustainable globalised tourism development indicators. The powerful effects of media communications can bring sweeping changes of attitudes and behaviour among the key actors in local, national and global tourism for peace, security and sustainable development. The social, cultural, economic, political and environmental benefits of tourism would usher in monumental and historic changes in the country. The media no doubt are pivotal instruments in society’s development as well as promoters of culture. The media functions within the nexus of society and just like the media cannot function effectively without the enabling environment provided by the society; the society itself cannot function well without the media. “The media are important shapers of our perception and ideas. They are conscious industries which provide not simple information about the world, but ways of seeing and understanding it” (Orlu, 2013, p.124).
According to Wilson, (2006, p.80);
The communication enterprise gets all kinds of inputs such as human, professional and technology from the external environment. These inputs are used for the production of media products. The communication enterprise must respond to socially approved values and emphasize those held in high esteem. In other words, it must correspond with or reflect the economic, moral, cultural and political traditions of the society.
Okunna (1999) posit that the media must project programmes that are consistent with the values of society wherein they operate. Being that the “media are very important in the production and transmission of culture” Its therefore important for the media to promote and showcase such cultural practices that will not only endear the populace to such culture but attract them to the extent that they will visit the state, wherein such cultural promotions are showcased.
According to Chieme et al., (2017), the movement of people from their location to another in order to participate in such cultural activity is what some scholars’ term cultural tourism.
Onijah-Obi Cited in (Chuku, 2011, p.85), further explains that:
The most interesting aspects of tourism and culture are in the areas of cultural diversity. It is this difference in culture and values that allures and motivates tourists to leave their communities for another – to relax, to observe and to learn….Cultural tourism has to do with the rich cultural heritage of a people in the area of dances, music, custom, dresses, festivals, historical monuments, images, arts and crafts.
Chuku (2011, p.85) noted that cultural heritages do not market themselves but must be packaged by the people. In some cultures, members of the society are involved in the propagation of their culture. From the foregoing, it is clear that one of such members of the society who are involved in the propagation of their culture are the media because they have the capacity to transmit to a large, heterogeneous and scattered audience. The media are major carriers of culture and cultural instruments which supply the cultural force and shape the cultural experience of many millions of people in the modern world (MacBride et al, 1981). One of such cultural activities that the media can play significant role in promoting is the Osun Oshogbo Festival. Osun Oshogbo Festival is an avenue where the rich and abundant culture of the Osun people is showcased. Thus, the role of the media is crucial in determining the extent to which tourism can be promoted in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Despite the potentials and opportunities available for tourism development in Nigeria, it is still bogged with many problems. One of the major problem is the engagement of the media towards the growth and development of the tourism industry. While the media have been actively involved in several sectorial growth and development, more still need to be done for the tourism industry. The media must actively project programmes that are consistent with the values of society wherein they operate and capable of developing the rich cultural heritage of the country. The media are indispensable in championing the cause for tourism development in Nigeria as well as act as a potent tools in the transmission of culture.
Apart from the media being proactive in their reportage on issues bordering on tourism development, there is a problem of consistent support and encouragement to all and sundry to preserve their culture. There is a need for further strengthening of arts and culture through provision of community media to serve the interest of the ruralities.
Another major problem is the need for citizens to be aware of the importance and benefits of tourism, which the media no doubt can serve as vanguard of information. The current level of sensitization and education of Nigerians on tourism pose a problem. This they can do by projecting events about tourism.
The problem of advocacy reportage on cultural activities of Osun Osogbo festival and other cultural heritage have limited the development of the tourism sector. The citizens needs to be alert and informed of cultural activities such as Osun Osogbo festival as well as afford others the opportunity to leverage on the opportunities that tourism provides. Its therefore important for the media, especially the new media to promote and showcase the rich cultural heritage of the country such as Osun Oshogbo Festival, which will not only endear the populace to such culture but attract them to the extent that they will visit the state, wherein such cultural promotions are showcased.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this research work is to assess the Media as a tool for promoting arts and culture through tourism development in Nigeria.
More specifically, the following objectives where formulated;
- To determine the impact of media in promoting cultural heritage in Nigeria.
- To determine the engagements of the media towards the growth and development of the tourism in Nigeria.
- To determine media as a tool for promoting arts and culture through tourism development in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Question
The following research question were formulated;
- What is the impact of media in promoting cultural heritage in Nigeria?
- What are the impact of media towards the growth and development of the tourism in Nigeria?
- To what extent does media serve as a tool for promoting arts and culture through tourism development in Nigeria?
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study tends to be limited to the assessment of the Media as a tool for promoting arts and culture through tourism development in Nigeria.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Art is also called (to distinguish it from other art forms) visual art, a visual object or experience consciously created through an expression of skill or imagination. The term art encompasses diverse media such as painting, sculpture, printmaking, drawing, decorative arts, photography, and installation.
Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of the individuals in these groups.
Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), and advertising.
Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components. The identification of these traps enables relating to political – economic – social conditions in a country in an attempt to advance development.
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
The need for cultural preservation and cultural identity among nations has become an important consideration in this age of globalization. Today, the world has not only become a global village, but a global bedroom. With the tremendous development of the communication and information sectors, particular attention has been paid in recent years to the need for cultural diversity in the media as a way of preserving and promoting cultures. It is, therefore, imperative for a people to have some certain characteristic features that can easily distinguish them from others. There is no doubting the fact that the mass media is responsible for the dissemination of values, ideas, and developmental information in many ways and this goes a long way in elevating cultures and cultural identity. The way and manner the morals and cultures of the typical Nigerian community is promoted depend solely on its mass media. This research work, therefore, focused on the television and social mass medium with a view to examining its role and effectiveness in promoting Nigerian indigenous culture and art as well as its continued relevance to the preservation and sustenance of Nigeria’s cultural identity.
5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation
Since October 31, 1959 when television broadcasting was launched in Nigeria by the first Western Region premier, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, it has tried its best to live up to its objective of promoting cultural awareness throughout the Nigerian federation. It has been performing its primary function of informing, entertaining and educating the Nigerian people. However, emphasis should be shifted from the projection of Western cultures to the promotion of our indigenous culture and Arts. Nigerian television needs to guide against telecasting of obscene and disgusting lifestyles and social activities. Nigerian culture detests them. Thus, the future of the television must be seen as very significant in the overall social, cultural, moral, economic goals of the nation. According to Onabajo, whatever the pre-occupations of the Nigerian television, be they programmes in drama, sports, situation comedy, tele-film or news, they must continue to promote an integrative indigenous culture, moral and value system in our search for nationhood, identity and national prosperity (98).
Provision of electricity, good road network and other infrastructural facilities for easy access of media information in the rural areas and promote good tourism development in a country. Establishment and promotion of community radios, televisions and newspapers in the rural areas for easier dissemination of agenda information in the rural communities
From this research work, it is evident that the media are indispensable in championing the cause for tourism development in Nigeria as well as act as a potent tools in the transmission of culture. Apart from the media being proactive in their reportage on issues bordering on tourism development, there should be consistent support and encouragement to all and sundry to preserve their culture. This can be further strengthened through provision of community media to serve the interest of the rural.
The media no doubt serve as vanguard of information; they should utilise and leverage on their powers to lend their voice strongly on specific issues. In this regard the need for citizens to be aware of the importance and benefits of tourism. They should not only inform but sensitize and educate Nigerians bearing in mind that they are agenda setters and as such can decide what people should think about by the importance they accord such issue. This they can do by projecting events about tourism. For instance, the hype and promos of 2015 CARNIRIV should be on air by 2014 as a way of preparing the minds of the people to participate when such programmes kicks off in earnest. The media should do more in terms of advocacy reportage on cultural activities of Edo State to keep the people alert and informed of such cultural activities as well as afford others the opportunity to leverage on the opportunities that tourism provides thereby leading to tourism development in the state which will transcend to Nigeria’s national transformation.
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