Mass Media And Gender Discrimination
1.1 Background of the Study
This research examines mass media and gender discrimination in Nigeria with special focus on female gender discrimination. Gender issue or what is otherwise called feminism and womanism has been a topical issue in the contemporary period, as series of books and articles have been written on the topic; many conferences have been held to discuss this matter with far reaching recommendations, and many international conventions have been made across the globe to redress the perceived imbalance between the male and female in the both advanced and developing countries.
In 1995, the issue of women and media was an area of concern in the Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA), thus reflecting a growing recognition that media and communication are key for women’s equality. The discussion identified two key areas where action was needed. One, to increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication. Two, to promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.
Enemaku (2005) in a write-up on gender dichotomy noted that a look at the composition of participants in the 2005 National Political Reforms Conference (NPRC) in Abuja indicates that while men constitute a staggering 93%, women are only about 7% of the total 394 members. Similarly the average age of participants is put at about 64.5 years (The Punch, Thursday, February 17, 2005, p.1). This implication of the above marginalization of women is that issues bothering on women and children will take a back seat. Wicked and harmful practices affecting women and children will not be discussed.
Women are described in terms of appearance rather than abilities. There are fabricated stigmatization such as “the weaker sex”, “the office of the woman is in the kitchen” to mention but a few. Moreover, the increased commercialisation of every medium has intensified the visibility of negative images on female, from billboards to television to newspaper. New media are perpetuating and accentuating much that is negative about the portrayal of women in computer games pornography, advertisement, fashion and music videos. This has happened despite growing numbers of women in business, of women parliamentarians and journalists.
Furthermore, women are often represented as being part of a context (family, friends, colleagues) and working or thinking as part of a team not independent. In drama, they tend to take the role of helper or object, passive rather than active. Often their passivity extends to victimhood. Men are still represented as TV drama characters up to 3 times more frequently than women, and tend to be the predominant focus of news stories. The representations of women that do make it onto page and screen do tend to be stereotypical, in terms of conforming to societal expectations, and characters who do not fit into the mould tend to be seen as dangerous and deviant.
There are some notable improvement and exceptions to a generally negative situation and participation of women, often as a result of affirmative action, advocacy and enforcement of international conventions on gender discrimination. Women’s organizations and media monitoring groups have had an active role to play in promoting change. A wide variety of women’s media initiatives are making a positive impact both in Nigeria and abroad. There have been a few worthy governmental initiatives and training of journalists and other media makers has also help to increase female presence in media organisations.
To redress the imbalance and discrimination against women in the media, Werden (2000) suggested that Micro radio transmitters small enough to fit into women’s purse could be used to establish media outfits to meet the needs of women to communicate their issues, and that enough money can be raised by women organizations and NGOs to start and run licensed stations in the US. This suggestion and be replicated in Nigeria. In the economic and commercial areas this was achieved with the setting up of women participatory programmes like Better Life from Rural Women, Family Support Programme (FSP) et cetera. In the political arena, women are also making very great impact.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The media profession is heavily dominated by the male right from independence. To date there has not been very significant improvement in the number of women and their negative portrayal in the media industry, be it print, electronic media, broadcasting, or advertising. Negative, stereotyped, inaccurate and violent images of women potential and competence are pervasive. Women are described in terms of appearance rather than abilities, they are screened out during interview when discovered to be married because the media organization would suffer during her maternity leave and pregnancy.
Most women working in the media are in low paying positions with little responsibility, and remote access to managerial position. Studies show senior women drop out when the double load of home and work are too much to juggle. Many of the women are dissatisfied and feel unchallenged in the workplace, which is a male defined and dominated space. The Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA, 1999) underlines the importance of women’s media and networks for promoting debate and disseminating information. Also as a means of recognizing the specific needs of women in media, and facilitating their increased participation in communication. Women’s advocacy to redress the problem of discrimination against their interest is criticized and described by some people as “preaching to the converted”. That is , men have made up their minds to dominate the industry and that there is very little women can do to change the status quo.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this research is to examine the Nigerian mass media and degree of discrimination against female. However, the specific objectives are:
- To examine the contribution of the female media practitioners in the media industry.
- To assess the level of competence of female relative to male in the media industry.
- To highlight the factors responsible for discrimination against female in the media industry.
- To contribute to knowledge on gender issue through recommendations.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are raised for answers in this study:
- How are female using the media to enhance their status in the profession?
- Are females in the media taking advantage of International conventions/resolutions to increase their media presence, marketability and visibility?
- Can women perform effectively at higher management level in the media organization?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There is no effective representation of females in the media industry.
H1: There is effective representation of females in the media industry.
- Ho: Female media practitioners are not as qualified and productive as their male colleagues.
H1: Female media practitioners are as qualified and productive as their male colleagues.
- Ho: Females are not significantly represented at the management level in media organizations.
H1: Females are significantly represented at the management level in media organizations.
1.6 Significance of Study
Research on gender (female) discrimination in the mass media is topical and timely. It will be significant in many respect as it will aid international organizations, countries, women advocacy group, activists, civil society and policy maker on female matters in many respect:
- Identifying the level of investment needed to train the female media practitioners to be at the same level with their male counterparts.
- Passing an anti-discrimination bill enforcing the employment of female in media industry.
- Educating the society on the colossal loss being suffered by the country as a result of discrimination against female in media industry.
- Creating an awareness regarding the needs and challenges facing women in the media industry and advancing solutions.
1.7 Scope and Limitation
Gender issue both in Nigeria and the world over is a sensitive and topical issue, which cannot be researched into without considering the opinions of the cross-section of people who are directly at the receiving end. The scope of this study would therefore be on 200 respondents from the five media houses selected in Lagos axis, namely:
- NTA 10
- The Punch Newspaper
- The Guardian Newspaper
- Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria
1.8 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine gender discrimination in mass media with special focus on the women discrimination in mass media.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are also made which clearly indicates the opinion of the researcher on the subject. However, the opinion of the researcher is based or solely influenced by the result of findings from the study.
Nigeria is a secular country that operates and still upholds traditional beliefs. Her belief system which is based on religion mostly influence our professional decisions. Women for a long time has been described not as a leader but a follower. It is believed that a woman should not lead where a man exists. The man is given a leadership position irrespective of age, tribe, or size. The same scenario plays out in the media as the women are not given the opportunity to be leaders in several media houses. Also, at the management level women are not always occupying the decision making positions which have hindered their relevance in mass media.
In Democratic society, it is need to treat all casts and religion equal status, which has given by nature. Gender discrimination is happening in whole parts of the society. Even constitution created many acts against gender discrimination. Both men and women are victims of it. Media should play a vital role to reveal real situation in prohibiting harassment, rape, home violence, sex based practices etc. by making awareness among society, collaboration with other media Sensitiveness about serious cases, Follow up qualitative research, Capacity building, Self-controlling before publishing message, Support to curriculum. And after that men and women will freely enjoy the Human Rights without objection.
The Nigerian media needs to be sensitized to gender issues and now must focus on women issues in a decisive way as their role is detrimental for the women empowerment in Nigeria.
1. Social Awareness:
Media should raise social problems before society. It is right to know exact situation under democratic country. Media should play a vital role in the society to convey right message from sources of committees and commissions. Media should stand together to become a pillar of awareness about equal opportunity of men and women, their problems as well as solutions. In addition, display a real situation before society. It is media’s role to create among the relevant stakeholders and the society.
2. Stand Against Gender Based Violence:
Gender Discrimination is happening with men and women also. Infancy to childhood, childhood to adulthood and education. Adulthood to onwards. These Gender based violence is related to women and Judiany, discrimination, rape law is related to men. In this situation here is need of media to help those person who are suffering from violence both women and men. Media Should be try to follow the truth and revel it.
3. Collaborative Intervention:
Do not intervene for personal intention. Print media and mass electronic media should be convey same message staying away from confusion about one evidence, which is related to gender discrimination both women and men. Firstly, media should stay on their rules and regulations before presenting ones personal life.
4. Capacity Building on Gender Issues:
Today many times have seen that violence is happening against women, but what about men? There is need to build capacity among students since primary stage of education. This stage is needable for future planning creative citizenship of Nigeria. School related Gender Discrimination should be given by the way of media such as what you think about men and women equal opportunity in politics. Evidence based problems can be create sensitiveness among society.
5. Follow Up Qualitative Research:
Many times, it is happening that gender discriminative information like women violence, rape case, and harassment relates collected data is presenting by numerical way of quantitative research. But it is need to follow up those studies which have been busy in qualitative research. It may be case study also. It does not mean quantitative data is presenting neither true information nor situation of violence. But what about evidence. Here is need to present up to date information to the society for changing direction to gender quality.
6. Sensitiveness About Serious Cases:
Media do not present the ripest name before permission of person and images also. Never support to Rift between rich and poor illiterate and literate, black and white. Do not comment on serious cases, which argue to discrimination. Gender Discrimination related to men and women’s sex. Media should emphasize both of themes problems. The media has perforce to become gender sensitive and more responsible when portraying the woman and thus play a significant part in bringing about attitudinal changes in the society. A gender friendly media policy needs to be formulated for this purpose.
7. Changing View of Equal Value:
Media can create equal view among society under men dominated culture. Media must develop industrial awareness and commitment to its social responsibilities, including the promotion of values for avoiding Gender discrimination against men and women.
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