Manufacture Of Ceiling Board Using Local Materials
This piece of work investigated the production of ceiling board from rice husk and cassava starch. The rice husk and cassava starch were mixed properly in the ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 30:70. Physical properties such as water absorption, density and flaking concentration of the developed ceiling board were determined. Results of the study showed that the density of the developed ceiling board increased with increase in cassava starch concentration.
It was also noted that the flaking concentration of the developed ceiling board decreased as the cassava starch concentration increased to 40wt% and increased with further increase in cassava starch concentration. Addition of cassava starch in excess of 50wt% caused a decrease in flaking concentration. Water absorption of the developed ceiling board increased with increase in cassava starch concentration. The water absorption decreased as the cassava starch concentration increased to 60wt%, and increased with further increasein cassava starch concentration.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Aims and Objectives of the project
- 1.4 Significance of the study
- 1.5 Organization of the study
- 2.1 Ceiling overview
- 2.2 False ceilings
- 2.3 Types of false ceiling systems
- 2.4 Materials used for ceiling
- 2.5 Gypsum board (gypboard)
- 2.6 Metal ceiling panels
- 2.7 Plaster of Paris (pop)
- 2.8 Plywood
- 2.9 PVC False ceiling
- 2.10 Overview of Asbestos
- 2.11 Types of Asbestos
Materials and Methods
- 3.1 Research design
- 3.2 Materials
- 3.3 Collection of materials
- 3.4 Equipment
- 3.5 Method
Results and Discussion
Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Suggestion for further research
1.1 Background of the Study
A ceiling board is a horizontal slab covering the upper section of a room or internal space. A ceiling board is generally not structural but is a shell concealing the details of the structure above. However, the ceiling might be holding up building materials such as heat or sound insulation.
In modern buildings, electric lights, smoke detector, security cameras and signage are commonly attached to ceilings.
This project however, is based on the production of ceiling board from local raw materials. These local raw materials include cement, fibre cellulose, fibre obtained from ground paper, mainly waste paper, water and some other additives.
There are different types of ceiling boards. These include;
- Gypsum ceiling boards;
- Acoustical ceiling boards;
- Gypsum fibre ceiling boards;
- Cement fibre-ceiling boards. Etc
These types of ceiling boards are grouped in accordance to the raw materials used for the production. Gypsum ceiling boards are produced from gypsum, Acoustical ceiling boards are obtained from mineral wool, gypsum and small amount of paper and starch. Gypsum fibre ceiling boards are produced from gypsum and fibre to reinforce the ceiling board.
This study however will be based mainly on the production of fibre cement ceiling boards. This consist essentially of an inorganic binder usually calcium silicate formed by the chemical reaction of a siliceous material and a calcareous material. This is reinforced by organic fibres, fillers and pigment compatible with the fibre reinforced cement to form a ceiling board.
In the past, ceiling boards were produced using Asbestos a fibre present naturally in rocks. It was used because of its high tensile strength, poor heat conductivity and high fire resistance. However, asbestos causes asbestosis, which leads to cancer. As a result of this problem, manufacturers of ceiling boards went into research to find out substitutes that can be used in the production of ceiling boards.
This substitute includes shredded wood, cellulose fibre agricultural waste etc.
Rather than industrial products (glass-fibre, iron fillings) and man-made materials, the fibres best suited to the socio-economic circumstances of developing countries are natural fibres.
This project therefore, is based on how these natural fibres can be used in the production of ceiling boards in order to reduce cost and as well comparing the product with that which has been produced naturally.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research intends to see if local materials (Rice husk, cassava starch, epoxy resin and hardener) are effective additives for ceiling board. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the question below:
Are there significant differences on flexural strength between the waste paper ceiling board among without and with Rice husk, cassava starch, epoxy resin and hardener?
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Project
- To study the possibility of making use of local raw materials for the production of ceiling board.
- To produce a board with good acoustic and thermal insulating properties.
- To produce a board with reduced cost to discourage importation there by saving Nigeria her foreign exchange and booting her economic status.
- To reduce environmental pollution caused by indiscriminate littering of papers and the pollution of the air resulting from burning these waste.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The present study will be beneficial to the following:
- To the environment. This study will lessen the amount of trees being cut for the production of wood ceiling board.
- It will offer a viable solution to problems caused by waste water lilies and paper.
- To the community. It will offer potential income to people who will venture out making ceiling boards.
- To the students. This study will increase the knowledge of students regarding on practicing the 3R’s namely reduce, reuse, and recycle. It will likewise increase their scientific skills.
1.5 Organization of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters.
- Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study.
- Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature.
- The chapter three gives the research methodology while
- The chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data.
- The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The ever increasing cost of building materials makes the search for cheaper materials very necessary. In many developing countries, including Nigeria, asbestos products are dominant in the building industry, but this has great health hazards on the occupants.
This composite material compares favorably with other commercially available ceiling board materials. This study has equally shown that waste materials can be recycled into other useful materials, such as agro-waste ceiling boards.
The following conclusions were drawn from the results of the analysis.
- The density of the developed ceiling board increased with increase in cassava starch concentration.
- The flaking concentration of the developed ceiling board decreased as the cassava starch concentration increased to 40wt% and increased with further increase in cassava starch concentration.
- Addition of cassava starch in excess of 50wt% caused a decrease in flaking concentration with increase in starch concentration.
- Water absorption of the developed ceiling board increased with increase in cassava starch concentration.
- The water absorption decreased as the cassava starch concentration increased to 60wt%, and increased with further increase in cassava starch concentration.
The recommendation from the research work is that the composite boards need to be impregnated with bituminous materials to reduce its water absorption or permeability. The commercial production of the board can be mechanized to enhance its properties. Nails could be substituted with bolts and rivets when fixing the boards. It is also highly recommended that production factories for composite ceiling boards be established as part of the entrepreneurship development programmes of our higher institutions and research institutes for both skilled and unskilled personnel in the midst of locally available raw materials. More research is also encouraged in the area of composite ceiling materials from recyclable waste materials with different binding material.
5.3 Suggestion for Further Research
Further study is needed to investigate the effect of cassava starch concentration on the mechanical properties of the ceiling board.
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