Managing HIV And Aids Stigma In The Workplace

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Managing HIV And Aids Stigma In The Workplace


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the management of HIV and AIDs stigma in the workplace using Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace, determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace, find out whether voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) contributes to the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace, find out whether the formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent HIV and AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace is low. Furthermore, the study revealed that the extent HIV and AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace is low. Therefore, it is recommended that effective strategies to end HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in the workplace should consider the context in which the strategies are to be implemented. HIV/AIDS-related education and availability of health and social supports to HIV/AIDS affected/infected employees could help lower self-stigma and discrimination among affected/infected employees in the workplaces. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Stigma and discrimination against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is complex and diverse. This is problematic because, in order for interventions addressing the spread of HIV to have their maximum impact, the issue of stigma and discrimination needs to be addressed (Health Policy Initiative, 2010). In order to ensure that achievements made in the bid to reduce HIV infection rates are maintained it is important that the issue of HIV stigmatization be addressed. Health-related stigma has been in existence for a long time and has affected several disease conditions such as leprosy, tuberculosis, and HIV. Health-related stigma has been described as a attribute of society that actually happens to an individual or the individual thinks may happen, and may result in the individual being rejected or excluded (Schechter, Bakor, Kone, Robinson, Lue, & Senturie, 2014; Weiss, Ramakrishna, & Somma, 2006).

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS; 2008) defined stigma as a shameful sign, trace, or impairment of an individual. Stigma is deep seated in the structure and values of society, and it forms part of the daily existence of the particular society (Herek & Capitanio, 1999; Kheswa, 2014; Zeti, 2013). Goffman (1963, p.13) defined stigma as an attribute that is “discrediting” thus making the individual unacceptable in society (Health Policy Initiative, 2010; Scambler, 2009).

Stigma continues to increase the burden in several disease conditions. Stigma significantly prevents a person from learning of their HIV status, because of the fear of experiencing stigma and discrimination from the society in which they live. It is estimated that globally there are 9 out of every 10 HIV positive individuals who do not know their HIV status (Health Policy Initiative, 2010). Individuals need to know their HIV status before they can be given treatment and care for HIV. Getting tested for HIV is thus important in getting access to care and treatment.

Counseling received during care for HIV enables the individual to plan for his or her future. HIV stigma however has a negative effect on the individual opting for HIV testing and also on the individual‟s health seeking behavior when diagnosed with the virus. HIV stigma is more likely to cause an individual to engage in risky behavior, which inevitably results in poor health (Health Policy Initiative, 2010). HIV and AIDS are serious public health problems, which have socioeconomic, employment and human rights implications. It is recognised that the HIV/AIDS epidemic will affect every workplace, with prolonged staff illness, absenteeism, and death impacting on productivity, employee benefits, occupational health and safety, production costs and workplace morale (Code of Good Practice, 2000).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

People living with and affected by HIV continue to face stigma and discrimination in many countries across the globe (UNAIDS, 2012). Evidence shows that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are more likely to be discriminated against than people with most other health conditions (Deacon & Boulle, 2006). HIV and AIDS are serious public health problems, which have socioeconomic, employment and human rights implications. It is recognized that the HIV/AIDS epidemic will affect every workplace, with prolonged staff illness, absenteeism, and death impacting on productivity, employee benefits, occupational health and safety, production costs and workplace morale (Code of Good Practice, 2000).

Furthermore HIV/AIDS is still a disease surrounded by ignorance, prejudice, discrimination and stigma. In the workplace unfair discrimination against people living with HIV and AIDS has been perpetuated through practices such as pre-employment HIV testing, dismissals for being HIV positive and the denial of employee benefits.
The epidemic also affects business in many ways, including increasing costs because of absenteeism, sickness and recruitment, organizational disruption and loss of skills, and increasing health expenses and funeral costs. (UNAIDS Report, 2004). The disease ultimately reduces company profits as expenses increase, production or service delivery fails to adhere to planned schedules, and customers change their purchasing plans because of the HIV/AIDS expenses they themselves incur. One of the most effective ways of reducing and managing the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace is through the implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and prevention programmes.

While HIV is not transmitted in the majority of workplace settings, the supposed risk of transmission has been used by numerous employers to terminate or refuse employment. There is also evidence that if people living with HIV/AIDS are open about their status at work, they may well experience stigmatization and discrimination by others. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is the entry point to know one’s HIV status. VCT is now acknowledged within the international arena as an efficacious and pivotal strategy for both HIV/AIDS prevention and care. The need for VCT is increasingly compelling as HIV infection rates continue to soar. And an organization, such as Nestle Nigeria has recognized the need for its employees to know their sero – status as an important prevention and intervention tool. Those employees who learn that they are sero – negative can be empowered to remain disease – free. For those HIV- infected, there will be the development of less costly interventions to reduce repeated infection and maintain productivity. In addition, other medical and supportive services can help those living with HIV to live longer, healthier lives and prevent transmission to others.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace.
  2. Determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace.
  3. Find out whether voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) contributes to the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.
  4. Find out whether the formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;

  1. What is the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace?
  2. What is the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace?
  3. Does voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) contributes to the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace?
  4. Does the formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation do not help in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.
  • Ha: The formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research will be relevant to the current National focus area of ‘’Employee Wellness Programme” that addresses HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is envisaged that the research will have the potential to make a significant contribution to the theoretical models of stigma in the workplace.

The Governments Healthcare Departments, can make use of the findings of the research in addressing the HIV/AIDS pandemic issues in the organizations.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on managing HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace. However the study will be delimited to Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

HIV:

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with HIV, most commonly during unprotected sex (sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV), or through sharing injection drug equipment.

AIDS:

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus.

HIV-Vulnerability:

One who is open to risky sexual exploitations and attacks.

Stigma:

Stigma as the feelings of disapproval that people have about particular illnesses or ways of behaving.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the management of HIV and AIDs stigma in the workplace using Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the management of HIV and AIDs stigma in the workplace using Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically focus to determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace, determine the extent HIV AND AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace, find out whether voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) contributes to the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace, find out whether the formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of Nestle Nigeria, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent HIV and AIDs victims are employed and retained in the workplace is low.
  2. The extent HIV and AIDs victims are faced stigma and discrimination in the workplace is low.
  3. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) contributes to the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.
  4. The formulation and implementation of a workplace HIV/AIDS policy and general employees orientation helps in the management of HIV AND AIDs stigma in the workplace.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Effective strategies to end HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in the workplace should consider the context in which the strategies are to be implemented. HIV/AIDS-related education and availability of health and social supports to HIV/AIDS affected/infected employees could help lower self-stigma and discrimination among affected/infected employees in the workplaces.
  2. Employees should be informed of HIV and AIDS stigma mitigation policies and practices so that the consequences of stigmatising behaviour will be understood.
  3. HIV and AIDS stigma mitigation policies should be mainstreamed into other functions such as into communication strategies and also into the performance agreements of the managers, work plan (for employees) and standard framework for the general assistants.
  4. Managers at all levels should be provided with a clear guidance on which they can base managerial decisions when confronted with issues relating to HIV and AIDS.
  5. HIV infected employees should be encouraged to disclose their status, within a safe, accepting and supportive environment.

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