Management Of Funds For School Effectiveness
This research investigated the management of school funds for school effectiveness in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area of Lagos state. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A 24 item researcher developed questionnaire was administered and retrieved from 141 teachers, 15 principals, and 15 bursars selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique from the local education district in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area of Lagos-state was used to find out how secondary school principals manage school funds for school effectiveness.
Descriptive statistics and a one-way ANOVA were employed for data analysis. Results of the study showed that issuing receipts for all monies collected from parents, students etc, involving sectional and departmental heads in budget preparation; rendering financial reports to the Post-primary school management board, among others, are ways principals in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area manage school funds. The state government and owners of private schools (proprietors/proprietress) should provide secondary schools with appropriate money “safe” or open a good bank account for the school where the school funds can be properly kept.
1.1 Background to the Study
The main reason for this study was to assess effectiveness of the management of school funds in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagosn government secondary schools. The study focused in more details about training, nature of financial controls and budget implementation among the Nigerian government secondary schools. The knowledge about controlling finance is very vital for any fund as it could assist the one concern to collect, plan for source of funds and keep records about the fund obtained. In most of schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos the money obtained are controlled by any selected teacher who have no basic knowledge of management of funds and control. Controlling of fund is a very important area for an organization to grow. The study needed to find out if there were effective controls to manage the collected funds.
Decentralization initiative in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos is a vast and dynamic effort for change U R T (1998). Through it the government has embarked on the massive mobilization of initiative nation-wide to build secondary schools in each ward. In responding to the government initiative, local communities and their leaders in the wards have mobilized themselves in not only contributing with their labor but also financial and material resources for building secondary schools in their localities. In this perspective, education decentralization has achieved positive results towards secondary education service provision at the grassroots levels in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos UBE, (2007).
The rapid growth of private secondary schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos in the past decade offers some interesting lessons on the impact of government policies toward private education. Excess demand was indeed a major factor motivating the government’s decision in the early 1980s to remove the barriers to private sector growth. The expansion that followed raised the gross enrollment ratio, and widened overall access to secondary education within a relatively short period. Our study reveals that the expansion has been accompanied by a decline in access to secondary school among children from disadvantaged backgrounds; and at the level of schools, by significant staff turnover as schools compete for the same pool of teachers, and a narrowing of public-private sector differences in school effectiveness. Interestingly, despite the difficulty that consumers of education services may encounter in gauging value for-money in a market such as education, our study suggests that private schools (which in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos are funded largely through fees) operate to some extent under the discipline of the market, in that their ability to attract students does depend on their success in adding value to student learning (Sumra et el, 1999).
According to Nigeria Secondary Education Master Plan (2000), the operation of secondary schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos is influenced by the concept of ownership. The ownership of secondary schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos is classified into government schools and non-government schools. Government schools consist of two categories, namely, the traditional national schools and community built secondary schools (ward secondary schools). The latter are the result of the education decentralization initiative. Though they are built by the local communities, on the basis of the two broad categories of secondary school ownership in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, they are operated and managed by the government. The non-government secondary schools, on their part, are privately owned by individuals, non-government organizations and faith based organizations. These secondary schools are also operated and managed by their respective owners. (Assad and Jean, 2010).
SUBEC II that will be implemented between 2010 and 2015 started in July, 2010. Studies made on SUBEC I showed that the programme faced a number of challenges in various fields. For example, (Matagi,2007), about challenges facing implementation of SUBEC I showed that some new schools were lacking buildings like laboratories and libraries also classrooms were not completed in time, hence causing delay in opening schools. Further, the study showed that in some areas buildings were of low quality and rehabilitation was not done as planned. Bakula (2009) on assessment of community participation towards building construction observed that, the community was not effectively sensitized in order to create awareness about SUBEC. Few studies conducted in the area of management of funds pointed out a number of irregularities. Thus this study intends to look specifically on challenges that were faced in the area of management of funds at all levels.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigerian education has passed through a number of phases since pre-colonial, colonial to independence time. All of these eras have different experience in terms of source of fund for running school, management of fund and or fund availability to manage the school. This rises up the need to establish a study to see the effectiveness of fund management to the current situation. Establishment of Community Secondary Schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos gained pace in nineteen nineties when people at division level started to join forces to construct one secondary School in a division.
Upon completion of necessary buildings the schools were being registered and taken over by the Government forthwith. This was followed by posting of Teachers and necessary Supporting staff including Accountants, Supplies officers and others, then a school Board was formed which has authority to oversee all functions at the school including financial matters.
Introduction of SUBEC changed the scope, also the pace of establishing new Secondary schools increased tremendously. The Community schools were now started at ward level and in some areas to village level. Unlike before where the Government financial support was extended to school after registration and staffing, under SUBEC I funds were sent to even a just started school projects.
Existing schools were forced to foster the school projects especially in the area of management of funds. Some of the foster schools were just nearby the fostered schools but others were allocated very far away. Thus the duties of some heads of schools and Accountants increased too. After opening the schools the heads of foster school had to hand over responsibility to the head of new school. However, school staffing was not at the same pace to that of opening schools. The schools were opened with minimal number of teachers and even no supporting staff. This would prompt the foster schools to continue fostering new schools for a considerable period.
The guidelines show that at school level, the heads of schools are responsible for management of funds in assistance of the School Management Team (SMT) and their school Boards. However, available literatures are silent about current capacities of SMT and the Boards. Thus this study intends to examine nature and effectiveness of the management of funds system. Cash contributions managed by schools are used for funding of 67% of school inputs. The other 33% are contributions in kind from the councils, parents and others. The main cost item at school level is construction costs which include construction of new classrooms, administration buildings, staff houses, latrines, etc. In total construction costs accounted for 30% of school level expenditures. These costs are partly funded by cash contributions to schools (51%) or paid by councils or other contributors directly to contractors (49%), (Assad and Jean, 2010).
With all of these matters related to school fund management in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagosn secondary schools, together with changes in the same issue, there was a need to recheck the effectiveness of this fund. This study therefore was done to find out about all issues related to government secondary school fund management in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos.
1.4.1 General Objective
To assess effectiveness of the management of funds in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagosn government secondary schools.
1.4.2 Specific of Objectives
- To analyze the training of Nigerian government secondary schools funds management teams.
- To examine financial controls in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagosn government secondary schools
- To examine the nature of budget implementation among the Nigerian government secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the nature of training among Nigerian government secondary schools management of funds teams
- What are financial controls used in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagosn Secondary schools?
- What is the nature of budget implementation among the Nigerian government secondary schools?
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study intended to find out the effectiveness of management of funds systems in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos government secondary schools focusing on the secondary schools in Lagos state. It was expected that the study findings would help the policy decision makers to understand the strength and weakness of the systems of management of funds in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos government schools. The study would enable UBE officials to revise implementation of the current school fund’s policies. The revision would help in overcoming the identified challenges in the area of management of funds so as to increase efficiency in implementation of fund management. Also, the outcome of this study aimed at providing knowledge and information to the community and public at large about the type of information they are supposed to be given by the school management and the Ministry in the process of implementation of secondary school fund management. The study suggested measures to be taken by the UBE to improve the systems of management of funds.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Geographically secondary schools in the country are so scattered thus difficult to reach all the schools during research period due to limited resources and time. Therefore due to those factors of resources and time the study was delimited to Lagos state. Main concern of the study was the critical examination of effectiveness of management of funds system in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos government secondary schools particularly, training of financial dealers, financial controls and budget implementation.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The research involved different levels of education administration and other stake holders in Lagos state. Within the region the data were collected at the regional and district education offices, selected Secondary schools workers, students, members of the School Boards, parents/guardians and community leaders around the schools. The study would be conducted within one month. However, due to the limited time and geographical location of schools, some schools could not be easily accessed during the study because of being scattered and with unfavorable infrastructure.
Further, the study was greatly interrupted by new office responsibilities assigned to the researcher that were too involving. Nevertheless, a sample was carefully selected in order to reduce the impact of those limitations. There was also involvement of expenses due to transport cost for interview questions and publication for questionnaires. All of those factors made a research not to be finished in time.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of the Findings
On the case general findings, the study found many males who responded to this study. The age of respondents were put into five groups starting from less than 20 years old to above 54 years old from which the most represented group was 32 to 42 years old. On the issue of education, most of the respondents were found to be of diploma holders followed by primary school education level.
On determining if management teams had been trained sufficiently to manage the government schools’ fund, it was found that school finance dealers had been averagely trained. The study found that it is important for effective management of school fund, the dealers to be obtained basing on financial qualifications. On the other hand, the findings showed that the trainings were not scheduled in time.
On the issue of financial controls among the government secondary school in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, the study found that most of the funds first of all were not well managed. The weakness was found on the openness of the fund usage as well the distribution of the fund in regard to the planned cost centers. The respondents showed doubt about the ways the funds were managed in the government secondary schools. On assessment of the nature of budget implementation among the Nigerian government secondary schools, the study found that the fund collected was not enough to meet the requirements of the schools. Further, the findings showed that the funds did not reach the schools in time. On the issue of funding policy for the schools, the study found it to be ineffective and unstable.
From the findings given, the study concludes that the management of funds system in public secondary school were not effective. This was observed through the weaknesses on training and qualifications of financial dealers at the grassroots and inadequate financial controls because of transparency issues and failure to follow properly financial rules and regulations on allocation of funds. The findings too show that the school budgets were not realistic because the sources could not generate sufficient fund to schools. Further, there were late release of funds and un-stability of funding policy.
Since the findings showed that there were a lot of indicators that fund were not well managed among the secondary schools in Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, this study would recommend that there should be serious follow-up on the qualifications of school finance dealers so as to avoid loss. Also, training to financial dealers should be well scheduled and implemented as per plan.
There is a need also to make sure that rules set to manage the public schools’ funds are properly followed. Further, the schools should enhance transparency in movement of funds. The government should put in a place an effective and reliable school funding policy. Also the policies used to manage and controlling funds should be well known to all stakeholders so as to limit the fund wastage.
There is a need to involve other sources of school funding so as to generate sufficient fund to meet the schools’ budgets. The sources available currently were found to be parents / guardians of students, the government and to some schools there were donations from other sources. These sources seem not to be effective in terms of releasing the required funds to schools.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the role of management of funds in education?
Management of funds in educational organization like secondary schools have been a very sensitive and controversial issue because it exposes the strengths and weakness of those entrusted to manage the fund. The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) acknowledges education as a vehicle for national development.
What is effective resource management in public schools?
Effective resource management is one of the most important responsibilities of school administrators. After public schools receive funding from state and federal governments, they must allocate those resources to fund programs and other school necessities.
How to avoid financial mismanagement in school institutions?
Effective and accurate financial management is necessary in the school institution to avoid financial mismanagement. In a place where the principal is weak and ineffective in managing the resources of the school, success will be very difficult to achieve. Financial management is one of the tasks of the school principals.
How do you manage school district finances effectively?
Managing school district finances effectively requires a complicated series of day-to-day, monthly, and annual tasks administered by finance officers at the district level.