Management Of Employee Welfare With Emphasis On Industrial Accident And Safety (A Case Study Of NB Plc 9th Mile Corner Enugu)

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Management Of Employee Welfare With Emphasis On Industrial Accident And Safety (A Case Study Of NB Plc 9th Mile Corner Enugu)


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The industrial revolution of the mid 18th century significantly changed the world of work by introduction machinery. Work moved away from being predominantly agricultural (based on peasantry and tendal land tenures) to factors labor truly became a commodity as workers received only wages for their efforts

The factory system of production needs four categories of inputs: money to finance operation, machines to produce goods and services, men to operate the machines and managements to put every other thing together. Machines are complex pieces of equipment which a worker has to master to operate. The worker operating machines is usually not the inventor or designer, (like under the domestic or craft system of production). The skill with which a worker operates a machine affected the efficiency of production and the safety and health of the worker.

The situation arises because factory work involved machines that worked at considerable high speeds and which can infeflict injures if great acre is not taken. Also the factory system requires workers to work at a position or within a limited area, doing what are commonly monotonous tasks.

Attention can easily wave when work is monotonous and a person who works at a point (like assembly line worker) may be subjected to physical and physical ecological strain and stress. When this is combined with the speed of operation of machines, the producer of management health and safety becomes easy to appreciate.

There are many definition of the work accident psychologists Arbous A.G and Kerrick J. consider that “in a chain of events each of which is planned or controlled, there occurs an unplanned event which is termed accident”

Schulzinger (1978) also regards accidents as sudden, unplanned and uncontrolled event.

Perhaps a simple definition of an industrial accident is “a mishap resulting in damage to property and or injury or death to person”. It will so far be considered for this research so as to enable us have a quick examination of some of the factors causing occupational or industrial and diseases.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Accidents are mishaps and may result in damage to property and or injury or death to persons whilst accidents are unplanned for, their adverse effects can be managed by industrial safety programs. Principal items in an industrial safety program include, Engineering a stage machine and operating manual, educating all employees to act safety deeply accurate record of operational accidents ill-health, a injures and deaths, accident analysis safety contests and enforcing the release (flip, 1980)

Employee morale impacts on productivity the better the morale, the higher the productivity. Industrial accidents reduce productivity (and actual reduce production). It can be inferred that boosting morale can reduce accidents.

Facility design and layout contribute to employee morale. Besides morale equipments failure reduces productivity and increase industrial accidents.

We can therefore say that there are tow categories of causes of industrial accidents technical and human. Technical causes are connected with deficiencies in factories, machine tool, materials, and the general working environment. On the other hand, human causes are connected with deficiencies in the individual. Such as improper attitudes carelessness, recklessness, inability to perform the job, day-dreaming alcoholism and the use of the drugs on the job.

It is estimated that out of five accident in industry are caused by human deficiencies (flip 1980). When accidents occur damage, injury of death may result, each of these involve some form of cost both direct and indirect.

There are some problem associated in NB PLC 9th mile corner Enugu and they are as follows.

  1. ILLITERACY: The majority of the workers are half educated ones and many don’t know when information was sending and what it talks about.
  2. Some managers are disillusioned because major decisions effecting their departments are taken without them was being contracted
  3. OVER LOADING: The overloading of the machines causes accidents.
  4. Bad construction and design of machine
  5. NOISE: There are relationship between noise and accidents rate but evidence in support of this is not over whelming.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

This is designed to

  1. Find out the causes, effects and preventions of accident in industries with particular reference to the Brewering industry.
  2. This study will also try to find out whether there are adequate safety provisions in the companies in this industries.
  3. Whether lack of safety presume was one of the major causes of industrial accidents.

1.4 Scope of the Coverage

The research is on the causes, effects and prevention of industrial accidents for workers. This study will restricted to NBPLC Ninth mile corner Enugu. This is allow a decisive and detailed analysis.

For the fact that is the population is fairly large. The researcher would study part of it and in this connection 100 questionnaire would be distributed among the work force.


1.5 Research Question

  1. In what ways can the management prevent or reduce the rate of accident in the industries.
  2. Indicate your status in the organization.
  3. What types of accident normally come up in your industry.
  4. Have you personally have an accident before.
  5. If yes how did you experience it
  6. Does safety program exist in this company
  7. Which department has more accidents recorded.
  8. Which machine(s) has the highest accident record
  9. What is your opinion is /are the causes of these accidents
  10. Have the causes of these accident now been removed.
  11. Which of these causes worries your mind the most
  12. Before you were employed, were you informed of the dangers of working in this company.
  13. When some workers in your unit have accident how does it affect work
  14. How does it affect sales and profit
  15. Do you think safety device is enough in this company.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The importance of the study is in many folds, this study will reveal to management of industries the various methods of handling employee in a manufacturing outfit and the effect of such method on labor turnover. This study will also reveal to many industries the types of employee and welfare. The fcat that some employee in the industry do not arise out of frustration which in turn is a result of an amalgamation of factors which can only be isolated by patient and skillful management. This study will be useful to heads of department of human resources of various industries in handling problem that arises in thir industries and in checking labor turnover as a result of such problem.

Finally, recommendation made from the study would lead to a better handling of problem when they occur in the industries which would therefore reduce labor turnover.


1.8 Definition of Terms.

According to Luther Guluck on his own defined management as a field of knowledge that seeks to systematically understand why and how men work together systematically to accomplish objectives and make these cooperative system more useful to mankind.

Employee:

Any person who enters into a contract employment to offer his labor for wages.

Welfare:

The well being happiness health and organized effort for the welfare of poor and disabled ones in the company

Productivity:

Rate of output per man hour of work volume output in relation to input.

Labor Turnover:

Is the term given to the measurement employee leaving a company and their replacement


Chapter Five


5.0 Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Finding

The analyzed data of the preceding chapters could be summed up as follows.

  1. Safety programs exist in NBL PLC ninth mile corner, Enugu. This was attested to by the responses from 89.5% of the respondents.
  2. Most of the accidents that occurs in the company are not fatal. Out of the respective number who had witnessed more than 12 and 62.5% for agreeing that death rate is only witness for between 1 – 4 times (question 2 and 3)
  3. The production department maintains the highest accident record in the company. This is followed by the stores department. There was a depicted the greater number of respondents. The high accident record in the production department might be attributed to the fact that it houses the various machines used in production (question 5)
  4. It was observed that the filling and corking machines has the highest accidents records. This is due to the fragile nature of bottle and the susceptibility of the bottle to explosion due to pressure. The forklift used in the ware-house and production collides with people or run into other materials as they run through the factory. Bottle washing machines also was identified as having a high accident rate. While unguarded electric motors was responded to by 12 out of the total respondent (question six)
  5. The reasons for accidents in the company were identified as follows.
    • Operators carelessness
    • Poor maintenance of machine by management
    • Electrical faults
    • Inadequate training
    • Bad machines and poor illumination

From the above, we found out that most accident in the company resulted from the carelessness of the machine operators and electrical faults. And this electrical faults might be as a result of poor maintenance and or bad machines (question 7)

  1. Many of the respondents give opinion that the causes of these accidents in the company have been partially removed while only few of them agreed that they have not been removed. This shows that the management is doing a lot of things to ameliorate the accident rate. Though there are still some lapses (question 8)
  2. Most of the workers indicated that the carelessness of the workers worries them the most this was as shown by 30 out of the total respondents. This was followed by the explosion of bottles as supported by 20 of the respondents (question 9)

5.2 Implication of the Research Findings

  1. Before anyone is employed in the company he or she is informed of the dangers of working in the company (question 11) this is as opinioned by 72 respondents.
  2. There is always less production when an accident occurs in some units. As production is reduced, sales and profit of the firm is also reduced. This as supported by 50 out of the respondents other workers in the company because more careful after each accident and it makes some afraid (question 12)
  3. From the reports by the respondents, there is enough safety device in the company.
  4. Some of the safety devices available in the company includes.
    • Goggles for the eyes
    • Helmets for the hands
    • Bots for the legs
    • Warning light indicators and posters.
    • In service fire and accident prevention courses
    • Grauze used in covering dangerous parts against body contact with workers etc.
  5. From the reports of there respondents, the company is performing well in accident prevention.
  6. My respondents viewed three things as the causes of the accidents so far recorded in the company. Thee could be seen as
    • Indiscipline
    • Finance
    • Lack of raw materials

Although finance plays an important role in the company and its deficiency is seriously affecting them. Indiscipline and lack of seriousness among the workers is the root causes of these accidents and it is a factors no longer to be ignored for its cost will be great and disastrous to the firm. The company is trying as much as possible to maintain safety at its highest. But some of the those safety devices are vandalized. And some are stolen and sold to some undisciplined members of staff. The attitude after all this is company’s property and the company has enough money to replace them, make workers to handle the company equipment anyhow thereby either destroying or causing some other havoc to other workers this is an evil wind that blows no own any good.


5.3 Conclusions

Industrial safety, bears heavily on the achievement of organizational objective maximized output for eventual increased revenue). The employees at NBL PLC and from personal encounter among workers in other brewing establishments believed and did indicate that an improvement on their work place in terms of safety measures than above.

From the analysis of the data, one is led to conclude that it is those engaged in the actual production that mostly exposed to danger of accident (question 5 questionnaire) of the fear of sources of injures entertained b y the workers almost all of them were of things that obtain within the plant.

For instance a salesman whose area of work is in external environment (ie) among customers in the market around deports had less fear entertained in connection with exploding bottles and electric shocks as he least encounter them.

The researcher is on the whole therefore of the opinion that a positive affirmative answer should be given to any question as to whether there is a positive correlation between safety and efficiency of production and in general the safe factory is the efficient factory.

Available information on industrial accident at NBL PLC has abundantly shown that an accident prove work setting could be a drag to the attainment of organizational objectives through increased output.

This pin-points the possible correlation which prevails between industrial safety and productivity.


5.4 Recommendation

From available data, it is clear that lack of discipline among some staff especially machine operators and casual workers at the company’s plants has not provided the necessary environment that could help the company to attain the corporation goal without much accident cases.

The situation should be looked into towards finding out who among those workers is not working according to rule or which machine or machines that could be replaced or phased out to avoid their causing accident.

This suggestion needs serious consideration as the money invested in treating wounded workers or paying compensation or repairing the breakdown machine will in the long run it summed up be uneconomical compared with the above suggested alternatives.

Employees should also he sent for proper training at the completion of which the complex machines installed in the plant would have expert hands to man them. The company is also advised to look into other avenues to make more money in order to finance some other safe and quicker ways of production.

Efforts will be made also to see that able and efficient hands are selected during recruitment.

This is because the cost of good selection will be so great.

The machine operators need to be mandate and even forced to always put on the safety gadgets provided for them during every operation it is not only that they should put on the safety gadgets but whenever that is done, it must be done in a proper manner.

Finally, whenever any effort and resources are being spent on safety program in organization are being spent on safety program in organizations emphasis must be laid within the production department.

This is the department where people are easily exposed to various forms of accidents. Like exposure to various machines.


5.5 Suggestion for Further Research

  1. Most studies in this research are some relationship between accident and both experience and age.
  2. NBL PLC Ninth mile should take adequate cares on their machines.
  3. Should take adequate cares on workers who are injured during the working hours.
  4. Temperature and Environment take effect on frequency of accidents.
  5. Illumination should look on workers characters or personal worries

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