Management And Conservation Of In-Land Fisheries Resources In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Osimiri Dudu Flood Pond In Anambra State)
In this research work the important of appropriate institutional arrangements for the development of in-land fisheries enhancement strategies in Anambra state is emhasined .
Chapter one contains a general discussion based on the general trend of fish production in most intend water bodies in Nigeria and high lighted some factors which where though to be responsible for the drastic decline . furthermore this chapter highlighted the activities of some of various institutional that are responsible for coordinating the activities of in-land water bodies in Nigeria can the view of some individual contributor. It went further to state the problem and limitation of the study and finally the definition of terms.
In addition a number of case studies of traditional fisheries management techniques operated at the village level example construction if fish shelters in seasonal pools as well as some other related materials are outlined and reviewed in chapter two as part of literature review.
Chapter three deal of literature review the method used in collecting data of the study the way the questionnaire were constructed distributed and the treatment of data.
Chapter four deal with data presentation and analysis.
This paper finished in chapter five with an identification of the opportunities and constraints for future fisheries enhancement strategies in Nigeria. It also contains the conclusion drawn from all the analysis and findings of the research work can the recommendation made.
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table contents
- List of tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research question
- 1.5 Hypothesis formulation
- 1.6 Significance of study
- 1.7 Scope of study
- 1.8 Limitation of study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
- Chapter reference
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Meaning and concept of fishers management
- 2.2 The concept of sustainability in fisheries management
- 2.3 Impact of environmental degradation in –land fisheries management
- 2.4 An evaluation of tropical wetland with emphasis on its uses and benefits
- 2.5 An overview of traditional modern and mix management system in in-land water bodies
- 2.6 The effect of pesticides of on fish production in fisheries management
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction to the study
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Area of study
- 3.4 Population of the study
- 3.5 Sample size determination
- 3.6 Instrument for data collection
- 3.7 Validationof then research instrument
- 3.8 Reliability of the instrument
- 3.9 Method of data collection
- 3.91 Method of data analysis
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 presentation and analysis of data
- 4.2 Testing of hypothesis
- 4.3 Summary of result
5.0 Discussion Recommendation and Conclusion
- 5.1 Discussion of result finding
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
- 5.4 Suggestions for further study
1.1 Background To The Study
In recent years there has been a growing concern that the fisheries in most water bodies in Nigeria a have been increasingly over exploited leading to reduction in socio- economic benefits far local communities and they regional economy in general. It has been estimated that most of the world’s major inland fisheries are now at their maximum level of exploitation (FAO1995) for example before now the formal East central state now consist of (Anambra Imo Enugu and Abuja) were know for their richness in terms of natural resources particularly in the area of fish production. For instance during 1980’s about 40% of the total fish supplied in Nigeria were produced form these region. But as time goes on there become a drastic decline in fish production from these region.
This became a matter of specially concern to the people of these region. However it is on record that recently specifically in March 2005 that president Obasanjo in his official visit to Delta State was asked why the present government is hesitating in signing into law a bill that would pave way for the draining of River Niger in the region in order to allow for confluence of Rivers so as to increased fish spawning. His answer was” there are more it takes to attaining full production in fisheries production than only to draining Rivers”
Meanwhile, combinations of factors were though to be responsible. Firstly environmental changes caused by drought and dam construction has resulted on lower fish production. Secondly an intensification of fishing effort has been brought about increased communalization the introduction of modern gears restriction (such as gears net mesh net etc) which are used in capturing fish. Furthermore welcome and Barthey discovered that catches from in-land fisheries are Indic line state due to deteriorating quality of aquatic environment and poor management. Similarly Nigeria and Biosphere (an association responsible for the studying of intercalation ship between man and living organism) in 1990 organized an educative seminar on Nigerian water bodies which in broad sense includes flood plain lake reservoir and swamp
Despite all these protective effort capture fisheries remains highly vulnerable to over exploitation and degradation. It follows therefore that if fisheries enhancement are to be successful the problems of overexploitations and degradation must be address in parallel from the out-set. In response to the need for better understanding of in-land fisheries management and to investigate the possibilities for designing a more effective approach to fisheries management the researcher takes Osimiri Dudu flood pond in Anambra State as a case study. A particular focus of the project is to investigate whether traditional management system which were perceive to be successful and well adopted to local condition could be use as a basis for community based approach to fisheries management in the future in in-land fisheries management.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
There have been a concerted effort by Anambra State River basin authority (ASEBA) and some organized private sector individuals to improve productivity of fish in here various water bodies recently for instance federal government and state government recently conducted a research work which was assisted by food and agriculture organizaiton (FAO) to find out the rate at which fishes propagate in in-land water bodies in Nigeria Similarly there have been also series of seminars and work-shop geared towards educating fishermen for the need for the conservation of Nigerian water bodies.
Inspite of all these effort most water bodies in Nigeria are still in declining trend. This left the researcher with no other option than only to ponder: what really are the cause of the low productivity? Is it possible that an accurate assessment of the status of these in in-land fisheries have not been conducted? Or could it be a lack of detailed information to the stake- holders? Or is the management techniques in use are not suitable? These are what the researcher want to find out in this research work and suggest a possible solutions to the problems.
The challenge to this research work is to therefore to find some management system that would best support fisheries management in the state in finding and implanting its approach by specifying institutional arrangement that would prevent degradation and over exploitation occurring in the first place rather than trying to find way to repair the damages ones it has occurred. Such strategy make clear economic sense. It is also ecologically desirable in line with precautionary principle in that there is no guarantee that renewable natural resources degradation is reversible.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
From all that has been written it is the objective of this study:
- To find out why productivity in most in-land water bodies in Nigeria especially that of Osimiri Dude is very low
- To find a means of minimizing over- exploitation in Nigeria water bodies
- To determine the cause of the deteriorating quality of aquatic environment in Nigeria.
- To degraded status of our water bodies.
1.4 Research Questions
As a guide to finding solution to the research problem the research posed the following research questions.
- What are the effect of using toxic substance in fishing activities?
- Does environment changes have any impact on in-land fisheries management?
- What type of management system does local fishermen proffered most?
- How does drought and dam construction effect fish stocking?
- What time of the year does over concentration of fishermen occurs in water bodies?
- Is there any policy or programme regulating fishing activities?
- Why does over-exploitation occur in Nigerian fishery industries?
1.5 Hypothesis Formulation
The following hypothesis forms the frame work for carrying out the study.
- H0: Using toxic substance during fishing does not effect fish propagation
H1: Using toxic substance during fishing effect fish propagation
- H0: Traditional management of system is not the best and general acceptable management system in local community in fisheries management
H1: Traditional management of system is the best and general acceptable management system in local community in fisheries management
1.6 Significance Of The Study
It should be recognized that the fundamental issue as regards to fisheries management in most cases is the allocation of scarce (natural) resource to alternate ends. For example in the case of water bodies which contains major in-land fisheries as population pressure and other stress increase the natural resources become increasingly scare and become valuable. However because in many cases invitational management do not exist (or inadequate ) for the allocation of resource free and open access to increasingly valuable resources result inevitably in the degradation.
As a result of this, this study become very important especially today that all hands are on deck to develop Nigerian economy. this study will be of immense benefit to both public sector organization and organized private sector in the fishery industries in addition the study will determine the factor limiting fish production in this sector of economy (fishing industries). It is expected that the findings will help to rediscover the past abundant fish production in in-land water bodies in Nigeria.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out in all inland fisheries resource of Nigeria. The study is limited based on the fact that there is no tome and material resources to see to the whole nation
Considering the time factor financial constraints, material resources at the researcher disposal and the fast approaching higher national diploma examination of the researcher the researcher therefore limit his study to Osimiri Dude flood pond in Anambra State. This is to enable him finish on time. Though he findings may not be valid for the whole in-land water bodies in the country. But on the whole what happens in water bodies in Anambra State can said to apply to other water bodies in the country.
5.0 Discussion Recommendation And Conclusion
The main purpose of this study was to find out the best management technique to be employed in managing in-land water bodies in Nigeria in order to ensure an appropriate preservation of our fisheries resource. Osimiri Dudu flood pound was used as a case study.
From the research study the researcher found out that the major constraints on the development of artisan fisheries in the major in-land water in Nigeria have been identified as inadequate supply of inputs to the artisanal fishermen. Most of the fishing grounds are located far away from the source of supply for fishing input and added to the extremely high cost of inputs and the non-availability of capital to artisanal fishermen they are unable to equip their units for effective operation.
The changing nature of the seasonal stream river and pools frequently leads to low productivity of those water bodies and to poor fish catches by the fishermen. This naturally leads to a low income base and poor standards for the fishermen. This cannot be avoided particularly along the flood plains of seasonal rivers disturbed by either drought or artificial water control by reservoir authorities under this condition full time fishermen have to search for alternative occupations such a flood plain of farming with residual soil moisture during the dry season and this lead to over exploitation
Poor management of the water bodies by government authorities results in low productivity and consequently low catches by the fishermen. This is caused by the absence of fisheries edict in most in-land states and lack of enforcement of such edict in the state where they have been promulgated. This has led to the use of undesirable fishing gears and unorthodox fishing method by some fishermen and also the application of very destructive fishing method by other.
Unlike in some Northern State such as Sokoto Kano and Kebbi State where fishing right and power to authorize and to stop fishing in different pouds is often announced by the “Sarikin Ruwa” or chief of the fishermen Anambra State has no such intentional management strategy .
A dear example of an intentional management strategy (Traditional management system) involving gear restriction operation is in the Argungu Local government of Kebbi State. Here the use of gillnets is prohibited in order to protect the fishery from over-exploitation and conserve the resource for the popular Argungu fishing festival.
There is also a shortage of trained manpower at different levels of the profession for effective capture fisheries project implementation development planning and administration. There is also inadequate dissemination of information on fisheries activities and resource potential cum processing marketing and resource management. In short extension service are inadequate. The means through which these extension service are implemented are in appropriate. Often in state where these extension are in place they use filed staff to enforce and implement them without given adequate notice to the local chief who are charged with the responsibility of collecting licensing for cum fisheries statistical records from the finding it was discovered that these field staff has taken up the responsibility of collecting licensing fees thereby leaving their official duties which are often concerned with fishery developmental effort by way of demonstration and training of fishermen. The combination of these development roles and fee licensing collection by these filed staff create friction between them and local chiefs.
In addition to this one of the most negated aspect of fisheries in Nigeria is resource survey of in-land water. There has not been any systematic survey of in-land fisheries resource for the past fifteen was conducted in 1976 with assistance of FAO since the further arrempt to update the records have been frustrated by inadequate finding
Another major constraint is the fact that most fisheries communities have no access road this rendering marketing and distribution of fish difficult and also creating problems for extension services where such are organized. It is also common knowledge that most fishing communities in Nigeria and other developing countries lack basic amenities such a water supply health facilities and schools for their children
From the finding gotten from the research survey the researcher can then make the following conclusion.
In order to guard against undue increase in fishing effort gear size regulation (or guota regulation) must be enforced along with wesh siz. The major factor tot be considered is gear size regulation given the stipulated number of boats or fishermen tot be allowed to fish in water body. In addition to the above regulation generalized law prohibiting the use of unorthodox fishing methods such as poisoning and explosives should also be promulgated to guard against indiscriminate killing of juvenile fish and waste of fish biomass. Poisoning is often practiced in shallow inlets of rivers and reservoirs where spawning usually occurs. Any application of poisonous substance in such area inevitable leads to mass mortality of juvenile fish that are the most dominate age group in these vegetated in shone areas. A part from the mass destruction of juvenile fish poisoning should be prohibited because most of the fish killing by this method are often only recovered on the second or third day after the application of the poison and one therefore not fit for human consumption.
Fishery edict could, however be enforced in large flood plain lake and pools to conserve the species for the following spawning season. Prohibition of the use of gillnets below the minimum recommended mesh should be enforce in all large bodies of water within the flood plain. Also the construction of fish fences for trapping migratory spawners and fish returning to the main channel of the river through back water should be prohibited. These barriers have been observed to be abandoned often the fishing season and could constitute obstacles to migratory spawners during subsequent breeding season.
Closed season method which is regarded as the traditional method of flood plain management should be enforced. Specific study may be necessary in order to determine the particular area or season to be closed to fishing before regulation are formed. Area to be closed to fishing should be the spawning ground of most fishes. For example shallow flood plain area of lake reservoirs and rivers. The same area should be closed to fishing due\ring the peak breeding season which often corresponds with the period of the high flood
As the demand for water increases the full economic and social value for freshwater fisheries and the potentials of aquaculture need to be recorgnized and managed as on integral part of effort to enhance water productivity improve food security and sustain rural livelihoods. More effective engagement of stakeholders in river flood plain lake and reservoir fisheries through decentralized management institution will be required to achieve this while investment to foster hydrological social economic and institutional constraints and opportunities provides by each location.
The traditional system of fisheries management which stemed from local community and have historical continuity among a group of people is to be regarded as the best management technique to be apply. Under the traditional system (de jure with reference to traditional law) the fisheries should be classed as common property resources in that the use right for the resources controlled by an identifiable group. The objective of this method would include the control of fishing right and reduction of conflict generation of food/income for the community and most impotently the conservation of fish stocks. The main method of this management system would be the control of occurs and the decision making authorities headed by the leader of the community and traditional government.
Management And Conservation Of In-Land Fisheries Resources In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Osimiri Dudu Flood Pond In Anambra State)
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