Management Of Abattoir Waste In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Bodija And Akinyele Market)
1.1 Background of the study
Management of Abattior wastes has been of great concern in Nigeria. Almost every day in all the urban and rural markets in our county Nigeria, animals are slaughtered while the meats are sold to the public for consumption. Meat wastes sprang up from killing and also dehairing, paunch handling, rendering, trimming, processing and clean-up operations. That is the reason we will say that abattoir wastes often contain blood, fat, organic and inorganic solids, and salts and chemicals added during processing operations.
In Nigeria, it is required that the Food and Drug companies that are in charge of importing livestock products and those produced locally meet the needs spelled out under the relevant Nigerian Standard for Meat and Meat Products. Despite the fact that Nigerian laws provide butchers and importers of meat with rules and regulations that ensure high safety and quality standards as well as a an all-embracing procedure which brings their activities into compliance with the law, making the law active appears to be a huge problem. Presently, activities at theBodjija and Akinyeleabattoir meet only 210 percent of the requirements pointed under the major standard for meat production and none of the storage requirements. The activities of the Abattoir are meant to regain the suitable and eatable portions of slaughtered animals for human consumption. In the process, important quantities of waste materials(organic and inorganic solids) are brought into existence. ‘
The solid waste comprises chiefly of bones, undigested ingest and occasionally aborted fetuses while the liquids includes of blood, urine, water, dissolved solids and gut contents. A good number of researchers point out that slaughterhouse activities are responsible for the pollution of surface and underground waters in addition to the quality of air which indirectly affect the health of residents living within the vicinity of abattoirs. Beside these, primary producers in the affected water bodies October also be destroyed by pollutants, which October directly or indirectly affect fish yield, accompanied by serious consequences on human diet. Inadequate discharge of blood and animal faeces into streams October cause a huge oxygenreduction as well as nutrientover enrichment of the receiving system which could cause increased rate of toxin accumulation (Nwachukwu 2014).
Humanbeings October also be affected through sudden increase of water borne diseases and other respiratory and chest diseases. Abattoir waste disposal in many developing countries likeNigeria, especially in the Bodija and Akinyele market has been a very serious challenge over the years. In most cases, waste materials are disposed of without regard to sound environmental management practices; this makes them harmful to humans and other terrestrial and aquatic life. Numerous past and present research works from Nigeria and other developing nations show that many abattoirs in the respective countries either deposit waste materials in the direct environsor dispose their wastes directly into water bodies. Some also argued that the practice is majorly due to lack of or inadequate waste recovery and treatment facilities.
In Nigeria, increasing demand for animal products especially meat has led to increase in the volume of abattoir waste generation and theconcerns about this situation is growing rapidly. An enquiry into activities of the main abattoir in the Bodija and Akinyele metropolis showed that liquid waste from the area was highly polluted, with all the measured parameters exceeding acceptable standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of Nigeria. The studyalso revealed that residents within the community where the Abattoirhouse is located complained of bad smell from the liquid, pollution of their water sources and frequent sudden increase of different diseases among others. There has been a great concern about the way in which carcasses are prepared and subsequently handled en route to the markets.
1.2. Statement of the General Problem
Environmental pollution is a huge threat to man’s physical surrounding, his health (Fereidoun et al, 4007) and those of other living species (EPHA, 4009). It therefore attracts scholarly attention since pollution problem is an exceedingly difficult one to solve (Robertson, 1987) especially in a developing country. Man damages the environment either intentionally by design or unintentionally by accident. Whatever the source of damages, he bears the primary consequences which are evident in the daily damages and deterioration of the environment and overall threat to his general well being. Schaefer and Lamn (19910) recalled the impossibility of examining all environmental problems in detail, but summarized them into three crucial types which are, air pollution, water pollution and contamination of land.
The general problem of abattoir waste generated from markets has caused a lot of health hazards to the society; chief among these hazards is air pollution. The constant dumping of abattoir waste without adequate treatment in our markets has led to the outbreak of diseases in the society.
1.3. Aims and Objectives of the Study
The major aim of the study is to examine the management of abattoir waste in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine the negative consequences of lack of adequate treatment of abattoir waste in Nigeria.
- To determine the level of treatment of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market in Oyo state, Nigeria.
- To examine the effect of abattoir waste on the socio economic development of Oyo state.
- To investigate the role of the federal and state governments towards adequate management of abattoir waste in Oyo state.
- To recommend ways of effective management of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market.
1.4. Research Questions
- What are the negative consequences of lack of adequate treatment of abattoir waste in Oyo state?
- Are abattoir waste effectively managed in Oyo state?
- What is the level of treatment of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market in Oyo state, Nigeria?
- What are the effects of abattoir waste on the socio economic development of Oyo state?
- What are the roles of the federal and state governments towards adequate management of abattoir waste in Oyo state?
- What are the ways of effective management of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market?
1.5. Research Hypothesis
- H0: Abattoir wastes are not effectively managed in Nigerian markets
H1: Abattoir wastes are effectively managed in Nigerian markets
- H0: There is no significant effect of abattoir wastes on the socio economic development in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant effect of abattoir wastes on the socio economic development in Nigeria
1.6. Significance of the Study
The study would be of immense importance to the state government as it would recommend ways of effective management of abattoir waste in markets in Oyo state. The study would also be importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in further studies on abattoir waste management in Nigeria.
1.7. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is restricted to the management of abattoir waste in Nigeria using a case study of Bodija and Akinyele markets in Oyo state.
Limitation of the Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
One of the fundamental of the scope of personal hygiene is the meat handle. A meat handler is any person that has something to do with meat preparation, preservation, storage, and service for public consumption. Basically, meat handler must undergo medical examination before obtaining the certification of fitness. Majority of the butches do not have medical certificate of fitness. They sell meat to members of the public without under-going medical examination to ascertain their physical fitness. Any butcher harboring any of the infections is likely to pass on the causative agent to the meat and finally to a susceptible host. As stipulated by the public health law, the use of apron by butcher is an indispensable factor.
Butchers have no apron but use turn out cloths which could also harbor vermin’s, egg of insect etc. The turnout cloths may also consist of patches of holes through which there may be direct contact of the body of butcher with the meat serving as a direct link of diseases transmission. Insects eggs can fall to the meats during operations, thereby causing an outbreak of infectious disease.
Similarly, the infectious agents can also be transmitted among staff through any of the available medium which includes air, water and contaminated food through deposit of the agent of the disease. Flies are contaminated to health. They are not only a personal nuisance but they infect food and spread diseases. There are many kinds besides the common house fly, green and blue beetles, the stable fly. All are dangerous to mankind, because of the habits.
Moreover, it is clear that, they are mechanical vectors for “Faeca-Oral” transmission. Therefore, improper disposal of abattoir waste will provide adequate opportunities for these flies to bread and later contaminates our meat. There are various ways in which the housefly contaminates food. They are:
- They carry feaces on their hairs while feed on infected faces.
- Defecating on the food during feeding the gross in adequate and in sanitary condition of the provided space for keep equipment and utensils in most abattoir militate against proper care of the equipment. The design of those spaces is such a way that dust, flies and rodents find easy accession to them. These dirty utensils attract a lot of lies and as well emanate odour.
Failure to take proper precautions in cleaning the equipment is a common source of food poisoning. The utensils are some time contaminated by flies, dust and rodents and the result is usually contraction of food borne diseases. The provision of dustbin as an important facility for refuse dumping in an abattoir.
Most butchers do not keep their premises in good sanitary condition and many of them do not have dustbin. Few of them provides for waste bin have no tight fitting cover therefore poor condition of the waste bin, non provision of the waste bin and failure to keep their premises in good sanitary condition had given rise to fly infestation and offensive odour thereby exposing their meat to contamination. As a result of the inefficient use of the waste bin and the littering around the promises provide adequate opportunities for flies breeding and later contamination of the food which is likely to result to any of the gastro-intestine infections.
However, accumulation of waste is common found as most of the refuse is mainly of organic matter a lot offensive odour is emitted. Also since flies delight in filths they are found on waste.
They breed in waste (refuse) dumps moreover, a host of disease causing microorganisms are contaminated in waste. These flies usually have access to meat / food. They contaminate this food with germs. As excreta disposal rodent and fly infestation is as common sight around the premises.
Insects especially flies and cockroaches mainly convey bacteria to food when they settle at it. This is particularly the case in place where sanitation is poor. And intestinal disease are rife, vermin’s, particularly rats and mice may be the carriers of food poisoning. They may do this, by their dropping. The effectiveness of toilet has lead to a high rate of gastro intestinal infections among staffs and person around the area it could be observed that ideal sanitary latrine for excreta disposal is uncommon as a result the use of very shallow trenches were adopted and have wide spread and also they try to provide the one different from shallow trench: it is always of in sanitary standard and as such these in sanitary latrines are used without any attempt being mate to cover the faeces in order to make it not accessible to flies and vermin’s, as well as to domestic animals like dog, fowls
In such as insanitary condition faeces are littered all over the premises providing suitable harborages for flies breeding, odour, nuisance unsightliness etc. In most abattoir open drainage system is adapted which is channeled to the soaking away pit. After much accumulation of liquid waste product, the permeability reduce as a result, the liquid waste is retained and filled up to capacity and finally become defective round the premises at it is usually exposed when constructed. Coupled with the presence of weeds and faece litters, suitable habitat is provided for flies breeding and other insect pest vermin’s, emission of odour, pollution of the environment and it makes the premises looks unsightly in nature.
Insect emerge from the environment gain asses in to the hall of the abattoir as a result of improper screening of windows and other spaces privileged to ensure cross ventilation after creating must destruction on the meat product, they are accommodated in cracks and crevices in the floor of the slaughter house in such a situation, there is high prevalence of gastro intestinal diseases among staff, butchers, meat seller and also people living within the area and extension from a far distant places of peoples who also purchased the contaminated meat.
Provision of cloakroom, there should be a cloakroom where workers can change if it his period and the office should be there for recording and the abattoir should be disinfected and also the instrument must be sterilized after each work.
There has been age long problems leading to improper management of an abattoir in Oyo state. These problematic situation of poor management of abattoir arises from various aspect of man’s activities. It is however pertinent that man should embrace personal hygiene as a priority and take program on hygiene exercise on meat sold in Bodija and Akinyele market abattoir in Oyo state to ensures the safety of food consumption. This terms from the fact that abattoir is a place is a premise where animals are been slaughtered.
Furthermore, it is also advocate that far healthful condition and safety purposes, proper management must be put in place to forestall the spread of zoometric disease that is diseases that can be transmitted from animal to man. Form the foregoing, it is important that mass health education of all sectors of the society, particularly Oyo state abattoir should be carried out the health education should be aim at creating the awareness of proper management of abattoir and effect of improper management of abattoir also standard and devised methods of ensure that these problems (Improper management of abattoir) is brought to an end. These standards have in several occasions and in different place been transmitted into legislation and is abide to ensure success.
To bring about proper management of an abattoir, the health officers should carries out proper inspection on inside and outside premises of an abattoir to detect the nuisance present such as overgrown weeds, broken floor, leaking sage roof, debilitating walls, etc and issue abatement notice to the manager or owner.
Also, the health officer should carryout proper and regular inspection on abattoir to ensure that the meat handler are clean at all time. Any meat handler suffering from any infectious disease such as throat infection, cold, dysentery e.t.c should not be allowed into the slaughter coughing and blowing of nose should be discourage. In addition, the protective clothes must be washed regularly and be worn at all times when at work the meat handler or butchers must be compelled to undergo medical examination regularly.
The local government health personnel should rise up to the challenge and carry out intensive and sustained health education programmed in the area and among abattoir workers and meat sellers. These programme will centered on effective management of excreta and refuse so as to control the environmental pollution such as water, land, and air pollution. They should teach the people simple ways of proper management of an abattoir and maintaining personal hygiene in order to raise their standard of living and raise the standard of meat hygiene practices among staff and abattoir workers.
Management Of Abattoir Waste In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Bodija And Akinyele Market)
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