Males Involvement Towards The Prevention Of Mother To Child Transmission Services Among Pregnant Women

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Males Involvement Towards The Prevention Of Mother To Child Transmission Services Among Pregnant Women


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. Specifically, the study examined the extent of males involvement in towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women., find out if male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women, examine if cultural beliefs affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of30 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopted the Demographic Transition Theory. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that cultural beliefs affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. Furthermore, male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. The study recommend men’s involvement towards prevention of mother to child transmission services.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Generally, research has highlighted the beneficial impact of male involvement in programmes to prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV to tackle new infections among infants. A 2015 study of couples in South-West province, Nigeria looked at the factors associated with male involvement in PMTCT (Kalembo, 2013). It found men from couples who had previously experienced HIV testing and counselling (HTC) were more likely to be involved in PMTCT. This implies that promoting HTC in all other HTC entry points might enhance male involvement in PMTCT. Having time to visit the clinic with his partner also meant a man was more likely to be involved in PMTCT (Makoni, 2015).

Health workers’ friendliness towards male partners was significantly associated with male involvement in PMTCT. The study found that those men who were made to feel needed and an important part of the pregnancy by health workers when they accompanied their wives for ANC were more likely to become involved in PMTCT (Kalua, 2017). Being afraid of knowing one’s HIV status was associated with male partners being less likely to be involved in PMTCT. About 45 % of the male partners interviewed in the study reported that they engaged in extra marital affairs. The majority of these men refused to accompany their wives for PMTCT due to the fear of knowing their HIV status, which might result in stigma, discrimination, domestic violence or abandonment by their wife if positive.

Three quarters of respondents also highlighted how fear of HIV test results was the main barrier to male involvement in PMTCT. Men who perceived themselves at risk of HIV were therefore more likely to refuse to go for couple HTC. This implies the need for more HIV educational and behaviour change communication programmes for male partners in order to address issues to do with the benefits of knowing one’s HIV status (Makoni, 2015). Inviting men to use voluntary HTC services, offering PMTCT services at sites other than ANC ones (such as bars, churches and workplaces), as well as prior knowledge of HIV and HIV testing facilities have all been identified as ways of increasing male involvement (Morfaw, 2013).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Every day there are nearly 1800 new HIV infections in children under 15 years of age, more than 90% occurring in the developing world. Most (about 90%) of these infections are associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Moreover about, 1400 children under 15 years of age die of an HIV-related illness per day. Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV. For this reason, this pertinent question formed the birth rock of this study: what is the level of male partner involvement into PMTCT services


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent of males involvement in towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.
  2. To find out if male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.
  3. To examine if cultural beliefs affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.
  4. To examine if health system affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide this study

  1. To what extent is males involvement in towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women?
  2. Does male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women?
  3. Does cultural beliefs affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women?
  4. Does the health system affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women?

1.5 Significance of the Study

An investigation into men’s involvement in males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. Men’s involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission is important while both women and men agreed upon the importance of providing financial support for mother and baby, women’s definition of male involvement in pregnancy leads to marital stability.

This study will be beneficial to married men and women, single people, health practitioners and the government. Nonetheless, three are potential benefits to be had from some of the elements of ante-natal care, and these benefits maybe most significant in developing countries where mobility an mortality levels among reproductive-age women are high.

This study will serve as an existing material for further research and future reference.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will be carried out at Ikeja Local Government in Lagos State where a cross section of men will be sample on their involvement involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women


1.7 Limitations to the Study

This study will be limited to Ikeja Local Government in Lagos State where a cross section of men will be sample on their involvement involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. This study will be looking at men’s involvement and nothing else.


1.8 Definition of terms

Transmission:

The action or process of transmitting something, or the state of being transmitted.

Prevention:

The action of stopping something from happening or arising

Pregnant:

Having a child or young developing in the uterus


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to investigate males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women, using selected men from Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at determining the extent of males involvement in towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women., find out if male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women and, to examine if cultural beliefs affects males involvement towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women. This study was anchored on the Demographic Transition Theory.

The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 30 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from selected men from Ikeja Local Government Area.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The role of men towards the prevention of mother to child transmission is paramount.
  2. Men need to be aware of their roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission is paramount.
  3. That male involvement affects the rate of prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.

5.3 Recommendations

In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby proposed:

  1. That men’s role in a in the prevention of transmission is paramount and so men should enable to be a part and play their roles.
  2. That for children’s and mother’s welfare, men need to be actively involved in their roles towards the prevention of mother to child transmission services among pregnant women.

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