Maize Adjunct In The Sorghum Beer Brewing

Project and Seminar Material for Microbiology

Maize Adjunct In The Sorghum Beer Brewing


This research work was on maize (Zea may) abject in sorghum vulgare) beer brewing the sorghum was malted and milled. Malting was achieved by sleeping the grains in water at 280c for 48 germination of the grain was allowed for 72 hrs and kilmed in air oven at 550c for 48 hrs. maize as an adjuct was in corporate into the malted milted sorghum during mashing was done by the use of work. The work was then boiled with hope to sterilized concentrate as to extract solvable material for the hope. Fermentation was also carried out using a locally made fermented. Sacharonmycess cervisiae as the chosen yeast was inoculated into the work and allowed to ferment for 7-12 days at 20 respectively for primary and secondary fermentation. The product was later packaged in a sterilized bottle and covered the use of maize as an adjunct in sorghum beer brewing is to improve the sugar level of the work consequently the diastolic power.

Chapter One


Beer is an alcoholic beverage obtained from fermented cereals such as barky, sorghum and maize grains. Barkey is a well know cereals for beer production due to some great advantage it has over other cereals but because of economic reasons other cereals like sorghum as many also in use for production.

The effect of major adjust in sorghum grain in beer production during which many is used a adduct to increase the carbohydrate content this carbohydrate is hydrolyzed to usable simple sugar during mashing which is later formatted by yeast (saacharonyces cerevisian) to production beer these are various type of alcoholic beverage some of which are as follows

  • Ales: British beer and ates are described in many different ways in trade by this public some of the also are of wild bitter hight pale and scorch.
  • Stout: This is heavier type of beer in which well orated bardy or Walt or caramelized sugar is used Oatmed type stout is another special type main by the addition of a proportion of ostmed.
  • Lager beer: The main difference between also stomata companies with layer is the formation process. In that for ales and stout compared with lager is the fermentation processed. In that for ales and stout the yeast used is sarcharomyces cereisice and to formations is involved while sacharomyes carlsbergensis is used in lager and bottom fermentation is involved and lager beers more highly hopped than also and stout. Further the marshy force of ales and stout is carried out by an infusion process where as for larger a decoction process is used iv porter beer this is a weaker form of the stout now mainly brewed in treland it is saw to have derived it name from the fount that it was a popular drink of porter but in England the ordinary mild also have large superseded it .

In beer production four technological processes we involved. They are as follow:

  1. Malting
  2. Mashing
  3. Boiling wort and
  4. Formation.

Malting is the controlled germination process concerned with the modification of the grains that is the liberation of starch granle from the of endosperm cell and subsequent biosynthesis and digression of starch and protein by enzyme which wh9ich become activate during germination Aisen (1980) Malting loses of nutrient are encountered during steeping and respiration of the grains. In modern malting practices malting loses are highly controlled due to the use of better quality more inform and more easily modified quality sorghum grains. Mac fadden and Clayton (1989) reported the best result in work have been achieved with short grain Kara and farafora varieties of white sorghum . Malting losses of 20-30% have been recorded after 5 day of germination.

To elevate the nutrient status of the malted sorghum cereal adjuncts are used during mashing the net action of the amylase during malting is to digest the small starch Grammies preferentially. But the main activity of the analyses take place during mashing.

Mashing can be defined as the conversion of barley malt or other sources of malt or cereal adjunct by complement of enzyme ranging from proteolytic to amylolytic enzyme into fermentable extract suitable for yeast growth and ultimately for beer production. Manner (1982) Cereal adjuncts may often a cheg and high yielding source of extract relative to malt. Briggs (1971) found out that extract yields could be obtained from small scale mashes (50g totalk grist) with grist comprising 70% malt and 30% extrude barley wheat or maized under temperature programmed condition.

Masher counting extruded cereal adjunct frequently show poor work filtration and high value of work viscosity supplement of industrial enzymes to mashes coutainbing extruded cereal adjunct may improve work filtration and lower work viscosity.

Work is a product of filtration after mashing. The residence of the filtration is called spent grains. Work is therefore subjected to boiling to achieve several objectives. Fermentation is an important step in beer production and it’s major concern is the production of ethanol and carbondioxide form this conversion of fermentable sugars of saccharamyces cerevision and S. calsbergensis.

Two types of fermentation are employed, top and bottom fermentation. The characteristic behavior of the top and bottom fermenting yeast determines the type of fermentation that can be employed. Bottom fermenting yeast may be fermented in closed fermenters but open vats are necessary for the top fermenting yeast. The character of the beer depends on the method and materials, used for preparing the work.

Cereal malt is very important in alcoholic beverage production because it is source of sugar amino acid fatty acid vitamin and minerals.

1.1 Hypothesis

-Maize adjmict in sorghum beer brewing increase the carbohydrate constant in work.
H1. Maize adduct in

1.2 Objective /Aims

The objective of this research is to produce sorghum beer using maize as an adjunct
To use maize as an adjunct to increase the carbohydrate content of the word.

1.3 Statement Problem

Beer is been sold costly in Nigeria because barely cereal used in the production of beer is not grown in Nigeria. Locally grown cereal e.g sorghum, maize etc could be used for the production of beer in absence of barely cereal maize adjunct in sorghm beer production help to beef up the sugar content of the work. This help in the production of beer that will compare to those produced with imported materials.

1.4 Limitation

Lack of suitable fermented: fermentation temperature was not expected to vary from time to time but no suitable fermentor to stabilizer the temperature during the production. Lack of suitable hops for the beer production.

Chapter Five

4.0 Conclusion

Conclusively from the research it can be celery seen that maize which is a readily available and cheap cereal can be conveniently used as an adjunct for reduce the cost and beef up the sugar level of the work after mashing in sorghum beer brewing which is not from in Niger hereby creating a room for high cost of beer sold in Nigeria.

5.1 Recommendation

From the work it was found out that the beef produced is closely related in quality to standardized beer produced by breweries. This goes a long way to recommend the use of exogenous enzymes to improve the enzyme activity and consequently the diastolic power. Finally it is observed that the use of sorghum and maize as adjunct has increased the rate of yeast growth daring fermentation and it make then more active due to the increase in sugar level which servers as food and energy source for the yeast. Considerably this good in brewing in order to achieve a standardized beer with our own local grains like maize, sorghum etc.

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