Maintenance Of Urban Infrastructure (A Case Study Of Ilorin Metropolis)

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Maintenance Of Urban Infrastructure (A Case Study Of Ilorin Metropolis)


This project “maintenance of urban infrastructures (a case study of Ilorin metropolis)” lays emphasis on the various Infrastructures such as Roads, Rail, Electricity, Water-Supply, Solid Waste Management Facilities, Drainage Facilities and Sewerage. The various magnitude and the facilities provided were looked upon; the various defects and possible remedies to some specific infrastructures were also looked at. The major data collection procedures were from the various infrastructural ministries in the city and participant/personal observations. Data were collected based on the existing conditions, provisional services, facilities and magnitude of the infrastructures and the preference of maintenance activities carried out by most infrastructural agencies of which many are based on the stipulated activities of the agencies. Conclusions were made on the fact that these infrastructures lack maintenance culture which has led to their deteriorations, while recommendations were suggested on the possible sustainable actions and activities for improvement in Ilorin and environs.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction /Background to the Study

  • 1.1 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.3 Justification of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope of the Study
  • 1.5 Description of Study Area
  • 1.6 Methodology

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Transportation Facilities
  • 2.1.1 Road Transportation System
  • 2.1.2 Rail Transportation System
  • 2.2 Public Utilities
  • 2.2.1 Electricity
  • 2.2.2 Water Supply
  • 2.2.3 Solid Waste Management Facilities
  • 2.3 Drainage Facilities
  • 2.4 Sewerage

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Data Collection and Analysis
  • 3.2 Road Transportation Facilities
  • 3.2.1 The Need for the Maintenance of Road Ways
  • 3.2.2 Road Defects and Causes
  • 3.3 Rail Transport Facilities
  • 3.3.1 Operation
  • 3.3.2 Days of Operation
  • 3.3.3 Why the Need for the Maintenance of Rail Facilities
  • 3.3.4 Defects and Locations on Rail
  • 3.4 Electricity
  • 3.5 Water Supply
  • 3.6 Solid Waste Management Facilities
  • 3.7 Drainage Facilities
  • 3.8 Sewerage

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion/Analysis

  • 4.1 Trends in the Maintenance of Roads in Ilorin Metropolis
  • 4.2 Trends in the Maintenance of Rail Transport Facilities in Ilorin Metropolis
  • 4.3 Trends in the Maintenance of the Public Utilities
  • 4.3.1 Electricity
  • 4.3.2 Water Supply
  • 4.3.3 Solid Waste Management
  • 4.4 Drainage Maintenance
  • 4.5 Sewerage

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

List of Tables

  • 4.0: Road Defects, Causes and Remedies
  • 4.1: The Fare for Different Stations from Ilorin
  • 4.2: Feeders and the Rate of Power Distribution
  • 4.3: The Distribution Duration and the Areas
  • 4.4: Percentage of Human Waste Disposal System Usage

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction / Background to the Study

The quality of a given environment is determined to a large extent by the availability of several forms of urban infrastructures and facilities which have been provided. Therefore, the term Urban Infrastructures refer to structures, systems and facilities serving a country, city or area; including the service and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructures typically characterize technical structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunication, etc. And as well can be defined as the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living condition, (Infrastructure – Wikipedia, 2016).

According to Abrams (1967), Urban Infrastructure refers to basic equipment, utilities, production enterprises, instruments and services which are provided essentially for the operation and growth of a city or nation. This means that urban infrastructures are those facilities that aid productivity and directly ameliorate the quality of life of residents.

In view of the above, we can see that Urban Infrastructures comprise of such transportation facilities as roads, rail, bridges and airports; public utilities such as electricity, water, drainage systems and telephone services. It also includes community services such as educational and health centers, recreational facilities and postal service among others.

Maintenance as it relates to Urban Infrastructure pre–supposes a calculated attempt to support, sustain or uphold the available facilities, ( It includes all efforts aimed at ensuring that the available infrastructural facilities are kept in a workable or acceptable condition or state for its present and intended use.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

It has become increasingly apparent that a paradoxical situation is emerging with respect to Urban Infrastructures and their services in Nigeria. On one hand, a huge demand for urban Infrastructures has resulted from rapid urbanization; on the other, existing infrastructures are falling into disrepair before completing their design life. Operation and Maintenance has been identified by many as the key to enhancing the sustainability of the existing Urban Infrastructures. However, there is a general lack of understanding by some people about the role of operation, maintenance and sustainability in the context of good governance and administration. This therefore calls for the study of the maintenance operation of the Urban Infrastructures in Ilorin metropolis.

1.2 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The Aim of this project is to explore the constraints and prerequisite to effective operations, maintenance and Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures and services in Ilorin metropolis.

The objectives of the study are as follow:

  1. To investigate the magnitude of urban Infrastructures in Ilorin metropolis;
  2. To investigate the facilities provided for the urban infrastructures and their maintenance;
  3. Also looks at the existing condition and the operational services of the existing urban Infrastructures;
  4. To determine the sustainable ways of improvement.

1.3 Justification of the Study

The importance of this project is to study the effective ways and procedures of maintaining the Urban Infrastructures in Ilorin metropolis. This implies that, under good maintenance culture, the Infrastructures should fulfill the design life of which they are intended; during the tender life of the structures, deterioration should not take place under any ill use, worst loading conditions, fatigue, weather or other conditions. And also the deformation of the members of the infrastructures must not cause the structures to lose value from appearance, durability or the performance of the structures before completing their design life.

1.4 Scope of the Study

Basically, the scope of this project is to study the operation, maintenance and sustainability of urban Infrastructures. The Urban Infrastructures discussed in the study are Transportation facilities which include the Road and Rail Transportation systems; Public Utilities which include Electricity, water supply and solid waste management facilities; Drainage facilities and Sewerage.

1.5 Description of Study Area

Ilorin is the State Capital of Kwara in the North-central Geo-political zone of Nigeria. It is situated at 8.50 North latitude, 4.550 East longitude and 290 meters elevation above the sea level, (Ilorin-Wikipedia, 2016). Ilorin had a population of 781,934 as of 2006 National census, with a population projection of 908,490 in 2011, (NPCN web). Ilorin comprises of mainly three local Governments, which are: Ilorin east, Ilorin South and Ilorin west with their capital in Oke-Oyi, Fufu and Oja-Oba respectively. With the population projection in Ilorin, this makes it the 13th largest city in Nigeria by population and also one of the most Urbanized city in the country covering a total of 295 square miles (765 square kilometers), (Ilorin-Wikipedia, 2016).

1.6 Methodology

The method used in carrying out this project includes Document reviews, Structured Interviews and Participants/Personal Observations. It involves consultation to the required Ministries and Corporation such as the Kwara State Ministry of Works and Transport, Kwara State Road Maintenance Agency (KWARMA), Ministry of Water Resources, The Nigeria Railway Corporation, Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC), etc.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study revealed that Ilorin metropolis has more but not enough of most urban infrastructures. Many of the facilities have deteriorated, while few undergo proper and routine maintenance.


Many of the roads in Ilorin metropolis has one or more of the major road defects as listed in chapter three. The roads without any of those defects are termed as newly constructed or are the newly constructed roads. Lack of maintenance of most roads facilities and also the restriction of the maintenance agency, KWARMA on only Alligator Cracks and Potholes as led most roads and other defects on the roads resulting into various forms of unevenness on the roads which also led to the deterioration of most of them.


Though, the contribution of poor management decisions to rail accidents caused by infrequent or inadequate rail inspection is very significant but not usually reported, Rail transport could be said to be the safest mode of transportation which is also applicable to the Ilorin Railway System. The leading cause of railway accidents is attributed to human errors in-case there is any form of accident pertaining to rail. Major or effective maintenance is being carried-out on the rail transport facilities in the metropolis of Ilorin.

Public Utilities:

These, which includes Electricity, Water Supply and Solid Waste Management Facilities could be said to have been over stretched due to increased population and rapid urbanization in the city. Most services provided from these facilities like water supply have outlived their usefulness and need urgent attention which they do not get at the moment, due to poor funding. While the Electricity and Solid waste management system are providing their services based on their own stipulations. Also major maintenance activities are carried out in same vain.

Drainage Facilities:

Although, the facilities for drainage systems in Ilorin metropolis are well structured but, they lack maintenance activities. These has led some drainage structures to be filled with earth materials up to the road surface pavement level; the debris and others has also been identified as the major causes of flooding in some part of the city.


Based on the concept, the best method of human waste disposal is the water closet (WC) and this is gaining more interest as it is now the most adopted means of waste disposal in most of the Urban Structures and new buildings being constructed in the metropolis.

5.2 Recommendations

The need for the provision and proper maintenance of Urban Infrastructures and facilities at the right quantity and quality cannot be over-emphasized. For Ilorin the case study and many other Nigerian cities, the time for a planned action should be adopted. The following recommendations are meant to serve as a guide for the provision and maintenance of Urban Infrastructures and facilities in Ilorin and Kwara State in general:

  1. Efforts should be made to ensure that facilities are located in areas where they are really needed while also ensuring an even spread. To this end, parts of the city or state where some of these facilities are inexistent should be given priority.
  2. Government should ensure an efficient operation of infrastructural agencies and other organizations, as the incessant and indefinite strike has led to major deterioration of critical infrastructures in the state and also the distraction of major developments.
  3. A well articulated maintenance culture should be adopted to take care of the needs of the city and other parts of the state. Proper maintenance must be anchored on a well planned strategy.
  4. The state government should set up a policy base on provision of infrastructure for individual usage. This is due to the fact that Boreholes for example, is actually being dug in almost every house in some areas in the city. Special policy should be formulated for the digging of new boreholes and should strictly adhere to the comported 50 meters interval.
  5. Government should evolve a standing policy of integrated action involving public participation and partnership with the private, Non-Government Organization (NGO) and Community Based Organizations (CBO) for the provision and maintenance of Urban Infrastructures and facilities in all part of the state. Also, the service users should be encouraged to ensure the infrastructures in their neighborhood are kept in good condition.

Finally, the nature and standard of Urban Infrastructures and facilities in a given city is a necessary ingredient in the development of socio-economic life of the society. It will therefore provide the functional, aesthetically pleasant and healthy environment for all those, who spend their lives in Ilorin and Kwara State as a whole.

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