Maintenance Of Buildings Of Public Institutions In Ghana (Case Study Of Selected Institutions In The Ashanti Region Of Ghana)

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Maintenance Of Buildings Of Public Institutions In Ghana (Case Study Of Selected Institutions In The Ashanti Region Of Ghana)


Abstract


A building fabric is referred to as an “environmental envelope” because it is the means by which the natural or external environment may be modified, to produce a satisfactory internal environment for man to live in. The deterioration of buildings hampers its ability to perform adequately, thus is important to ensure proper maintenance to prevent deterioration.

Public buildings represent significant investment of the tax payers’ money and therefore preserving these building systems is important. Due to the neglect of the maintenance component of the housing process in the country, a lot of public and private residential buildings are in a state of disrepair.

In view of the above, this study was designed to assess the current condition of public buildings, identify the underlying principal causes of poor maintenance of public buildings, analyse the maintenance policy and practice and capacity of the maintenance and estate departments of public institutions and make suggestions and recommendations towards the adoption of effective maintenance policy and innovations that would address the building maintenance problem in public institutions.

The field investigations focused on residential buildings of GPS, GHS nurses quarters and UEW-K. Three different housing types were defined for data collection and analyses including: bungalows, tenement houses and single unit houses. Through the application of multi-stage cluster sampling and purposive and random sampling techniques, 176 buildings were covered in the survey. The survey revealed that there is a real housing maintenance problem in public institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that on the whole, 83 percent of all residential buildings of public institutions surveyed have maintenance problems with maintenance problem being more prominent in GPS and UEW-K with 41.2 percent and 30.8 percent of their buildings in a bad condition, with 14.3 percent of those of GHS in the same situation.

Maintenance problems by housing types in public institution revealed that building maintenance problems are more pronounced in single unit houses than tenement houses and bungalows with 48.4 percent, 37.5 percent and 5 percent respectively in bad condition. However, tenement houses had the highest buildings with good condition, with 37.5 percent of all tenement houses surveyed in good condition requiring the least or no maintenance.

The study also established the following factors as being responsible for the poor maintenance of public buildings: The age of the buildings, Lack of maintenance culture, Inadequate funds and high maintenance cost, Pressure on building facilities by number of users and Poor construction work and maintenance work done by maintenance personnel of the institution. Stakeholders in the housing sector also added to the problem has arisen as a result of lack of preventive maintenance plan, low capacity of maintenance personnel in terms of staffing and training, absence of a national maintenance policy and apathy and lack of patriotism on the part of some public employees occupying government bungalows.

The study concludes by enumerating a number of recommendations aimed at providing the necessary framework for proper and effective maintenance of buildings. These are: the need for public institutions to embrace preventive maintenance practice as a high priority rather than adhoc maintenance. Managers are to oversee periodic inspections of buildings’ conditions and create an inventory of buildings’ components and equipment. Public institutions should ensure that their maintenance department is adequately staffed. There is also the need for a national policy on maintenance to be formulated to protect buildings, institution of a maintenance awards scheme for public institutions and establishing a maintenance fund to be managed for maintenance of public buildings in the country.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study And Problem Context

Physical infrastructure constitutes a high proportion of the country’s investment. It is therefore of primary importance that these facilities which include public buildings are maintained in order that they can serve both the architectural and aesthetical functions for which they are built. The physical appearance of buildings housing public institutions in part constitutes the basis upon which the society makes their initial judgment of the quality of services to be offered.

One of the critical problems confronting the housing industry in Ghana is the poor maintenance practice (Afranie and Osei Tutu, 1999). The role of Public Institutions in National development cannot be over-emphasized. However, in spite of the heavy investment in public buildings, Public institutions allow their structures to care for themselves without any sustainable maintenance plan to preserve the quality of the buildings. The continued efficient and effective performance of public institutions depends on the nature of their buildings in addition to other factors such as enhanced conditions of service, provision of the requisite tools etc.

Public Institution buildings consist of both dwelling (residential accommodation) and non-dwelling (office accommodation). Both residential buildings as well as office buildings are prone to defects due to their permanent and lengthy usage. All elements of buildings deteriorate at a greater or lesser rate dependent on materials and methods of construction, environmental conditions and the use of the buildings (HMSO 1972).

According to Seeley 1987, neglect of maintenance has accumulative results with rapidly increasing deterioration of the fabric and finishes of a building accompanied by harmful effects on the contents and occupants. Therefore, buildings are too valuable assets to be neglected in this way. In his hierarchy of needs theory Maslow (1954) identifies five basic needs which are organized into successive level of importance in an ascending order. He identified physiological needs as the most basic needs of human beings which include air, food, water, shelter (housing), sex and sleep.

BS 3811(1984), define ‘maintenance’ as “The combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.”

Maintenance brings about improved utilization of buildings ensuring the highest safety standards. It must be emphasized that more rather than less maintenance work is necessary if the value and amenity of the nation’s building stock was to be maintained. A good maintenance system is also a good disaster mitigation system. Moreover, a well operated system of maintenance for buildings and equipment has the effect of being a very effective disaster mitigation measure in terms of cost and facility usage. It ensures the most economic way to keep the building and equipment in the best of form for normal use, given the original design and materials (http\\www.oas.org\en\cdmp).

Maintenance, which can also be explained as the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents and settings of a place can be categorized according to why and when it happens, as corrective maintenance, which is necessary to bring a building to an accepted standard. Planned maintenance is work to prevent failure, which recurs predictably within the life of a building such as cleaning gutters or painting. Emergency Corrective Maintenance deals with work that must be initiated immediately for health, safety, security reasons or that may result in the rapid deterioration of the structure or fabric if not undertaken (for example, roof repairs after storm damage, graffiti removal, or repairing broken glasses).

When buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result in extensive and avoidable damage to the building fabric or equipment. Poor maintenance has resulted in damage and deterioration to some public buildings in Ghana. Neglect of maintenance especially in relation to replacing electricity cables after thirty of use can also give rise to fire and safety hazards, which could result in the Institution owning the buildings being found liable for any injuries and damages. Another case in point is the Job 600 built by Ghana’s first President Dr. Kwame Nkrumah to host the Organization of African Unity meeting in 1965 has its main building quite rundown and has been under renovation for many years now. The present state of this public building could be attributed to lack of maintenance and neglect after being put into use.


1.2 Problem Statement

Many Ghanaian public structures are often inadequately maintained and windows and doors and other building elements and facilities frequently show evidence of lack of maintenance and repair.

Some residential and office buildings of public institutions have not seen any significant maintenance or show little signs of maintenance since they were constructed, some dating back to the colonial era. This has resulted in such buildings being in a dilapidated state with some being abandoned. This lack of maintenance by the authorities and occupants of these facilities often leads to reduced lifespan of these buildings (Melvin, 1992), which invariably defeat the purpose for which they are put up i.e. to ensure that the nation’s stock of buildings, both as a factor of production and accommodation, was used effectively as possible.

The problem of ownership of these buildings, where occupants regard it not as their own property but a state property and handle it without due care largely have resulted in the state in which most public buildings find it. In some cases occupants do not recognize the building as their property and hence have passive attachment in relation to the efficient use and maintenance of the building.

Most offices, especially those outside the capital city, Accra, are dilapidated and lacked the basic necessities and facilities such as toilet due to its state of deterioration of a functioning office. However new buildings are being put up every now and then without giving a thought to the maintenance of the old structures which have been neglected. Frequent visits to the Ministries area of the Kumasi metropolis which houses these public institutions by this researcher depicts the abhorring situations in some public institutions with the buildings showing cracks on the walls, rotten wooden members, leaking roofs and missing louver blades, faded and discoloured surface coating (painting).

Lack of maintenance of some police buildings including police cells in recent times have resulted in jailbreaks in some police stations in the country leading to the escape of hardened criminals in custody, some educational institutions especially basic schools holding classes in the open air at the mercy of the weather.

Vital documents in some of these public institutions have not been spared due to poor or non-maintenance of the building. The dilapidated nature of the residential facility has also left the properties of the occupants at the mercy of the weather. These problems arising out of the present situation as far as maintenance of building in the public sector is concerned lowers morale of the labour force and goes a long way to reduce the efficiency of the personnel.

In view of these, it has been considered necessary to study the maintenance of public building in Ghana to identify the factors contributing to the current state of building in the public institutions since building owners are increasingly beginning to accept that it is not in their best interest to carry out maintenance in a purely reactive manner but that it should be planned and managed as efficiently as any other corporate activity.


1.3 Research Questions

In embarking upon such study, certain questions should be answered before any credible conclusions can be drawn. The following questions were posed.

  1. What are the current state/ level of non-maintenance of residential buildings of the public institutions in Ghana?
  2. What are the reasons or factors that have accounted for non maintenance of public buildings?
  3. What maintenance policies and practices are in place as far as public institutions are concerned and the capacity of human resource of their maintenance department?
  4. How can public institutions ensure continued maintenance of their buildings in order to retain their current stock of buildings as well as improve on their condition?

1.4 Research Objectives

1.4.1 General Objective

The study is generally expected to evaluate the building maintenance practices being employed in public institutions and its effect on the structure as the users of the building.

1.4.2 Specific Objectives of the study are to:
  1. Assess the current condition and state of buildings of public institutions
  2. Identify the underlying principal causes of poor maintenance of public buildings.
  3. Analyse the maintenance policy and practice and capacity of the maintenance department of public institutions.
  4. Make suggestions and recommendations towards the adoption of effective maintenance policy and innovations that would address the building maintenance problem in public institutions.

1.5 Research Justification

This study is essential in the sense that it would not only contribute to knowledge and theory, but will also contribute to good maintenance practice in the public institutions in Ghana. This is because the study will attempt to find out the factors that have contributed to the present state of non-maintenance of public buildings some of which have been abandoned due to its state of deterioration and recommend appropriate remedial actions to be taken.

Furthermore the study will assist managers of public institutions to become aware of the current state of their building infrastructure and its effect on the safety and health of personnel and also to put in place adequate innovative measures to prevent new buildings put up to suffer deterioration which ultimately lead to increased cost in restoring these buildings to their original state.

It will provide a critical and analytical perspective for appreciating the factors affecting the decisions to carry out maintenance. In addition, the study will bring to the fore the major inhibiting factors in the maintenance of public buildings in Ghana.

With increasing demand for efficiency and effectiveness from workers in the public sector by the populace, this study will attempt to establish the linkage between the present states of public buildings in relation to the social and economic impact to public workers.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study was limited to residential buildings of selected public institutions in the Kumasi Metropolis of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It examined the maintenance of residential buildings of the Ghana Police Service, the Ghana Health Service Nurses quarters and those of University of Education-Winneba, Kumasi campus.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

Data gathering suffered due to delay in getting responses due to the schedule of work of especially personnel of the GPS. In addition records keeping was a problem for all the institutions surveyed such that in some situation researcher had to collate the number of buildings himself. This also resulted in difficulty in identifying the buildings.

Notwithstanding the above limitations, the study results have not been affected and thus are credible, reliable and useful for any purposes of evaluation and feedback. This was made possible because researcher assisted especially the GPS in putting up a data base for its residential buildings in the study area.


1.8 Organisation of the Report

The study has been organized under five chapters. Chapter one, covers the introductory part and it includes the problem statement, research questions, objectives, significance of the study, the scope and the limitations. The second chapter deals with the review of relevant literature on the subject. Thus, ideas of some researchers and authors have been reviewed.

Chapter three focused on the methodology adopted in undertaking the research. The analysis of the data gathered is dealt with in chapter four, whilst chapter five presents a summary of the key findings, recommendations and conclusion.


Chapter Five


Key Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

This chapter highlights and discusses the key findings from the study. The various issues analysed in the foregoing chapters have provided critical insights into the nature, causes and effects of the maintenance problems of public residential buildings. This insight has informed the recommendations of the study on how the maintenance problems could be effectively addressed. For easy appreciation the key findings have been itemized under appropriate sub-headings.


5.2 Summary of Key Findings of the Study

5.2.1 Availability and Condition of Facilities in Public Buildings.

The study established that:

All residential facilities of public institutions surveyed have all the necessary facilities necessary to make a house, a home for man. Bungalows and tenement houses have these facilities within the building and used by individual household, while in the case of single unit houses these facilities are detached from the main building and are shared by two households.

The majority of houses surveyed are old buildings (84.1 percent), with only 9.1 percent and 6.8 percent being recent and medium aged buildings respectively. Buildings of the GPS were much older (97.1 percent), with only 2.9 percent being younger buildings. In the case of GHS, 85.7 percent and 14.3 percent of its buildings are younger and medium-aged respectively, with the UEW-K having 38.5 percent and 61.5 percent of its buildings being younger and older respectively.

Generally, condition of facilities (toilet, bathroom, kitchen, water and electricity) in public buildings was fairly good regarding its usability. Toilet facility in good and fair condition was 85.2 percent, with electricity (80.7 percent), water (75 percent), bathroom (73.9 percent) and kitchen (71.6 percent) in the same condition. Among

the institutions, GPS had its kitchen facility in worst condition 30.8 percent, followed by bathroom (23.5 percent) and electricity (22.1 percent). The UEW-K has water facility as its major problem with 92.3 percent in bad condition, followed by bathroom (46.2 percent) and kitchen (30.8 percent). Facilities in GHS were relatively in better condition with 85.7 percent of all its facilities surveyed in good and fair condition.

In terms of house types, toilet facility for tenement houses was in the best of condition with all toilets being in good and fair condition. Water facility was poor in tenement (75 percent) and bungalows (25 percent). Single unit houses have the worst of condition in terms of available facilities. Most affected facilities are kitchen, bathroom and electricity. This has been attributed to the pressure on the facilities due to the number of users as well as the limited attention given to maintenance by personnel with the explanation that their income is too meager for them to undertake any meaningful maintenance and therefore look up to the institutions to do that.

5.2.2 Condition of Building Elements
General

Among all the building elements of the houses surveyed, painting, wall, windows and doors, the roof, the foundation and the floor had the most maintenance problems whilst the roof had the least of problems. About 90 percent of painting, 78 percent of walls, 61 percent of windows and doors, 55 percent of foundation and floor and 42 percent of all roofs had problems.

The most prevalent maintenance problems are cracks in walls, faded painting, partly broken windows and doors, exposed foundation and leaking roofs affecting 42 percent, 39.8 percent, 38.6 percent, 30.7 percent and 19.3 percent of residential buildings of the three institutions surveyed.

Foundation

The institutions with the worst foundation problem were the GPS and UEW-K with approximately 40 percent of their foundation exposed and hanging. 28.6 percent of GHS buildings had a similar problem.

Single Unit houses had the most foundation problem with 38.3 percent of foundations exposed and hanging.

Roof

Leaking roof was most pronounced in the GHS with 42.9 percent of its building with roofs leaking. However, 17.6 percent and 15.4 percent of roofs of GPS and UEW-K had the same problem.

In the building types, tenement houses suffer the most with 25 percent of buildings in tenement having leaking roofs. Leaking roof problem for bungalows and single unit houses was 20 percent and 18.3 percent. Leaking roof has resulted in damage to building materials or furnishings. It is a prime source of microbial contamination that affects indoor air, posing health risks.

Floor

About 54.5 percent of the buildings have problems with their floors. They main problems associated with the floors are development of cracks resulting in some situation indentation of the floor and peel offs. The problem of cracks is most pronounced in bungalows (35 percent), whilst 37.5 percent of tenement houses had their floor peeled off.

Cracks in the floor affected 42.8 percent of all GHS buildings surveyed, with peel off affecting 30.8 percent of UEW-K buildings.

Wall

Cracking is the major problem affecting walls with 42 percent of buildings of public institutions having developed cracks. Peel offs and partly broken down walls are the other problems affecting 21.6 percent and 14.8 percent of all buildings surveyed. GPS had the most of wall problem with 48.5 percent of buildings developing cracks.

Tenement houses have the worst wall problems with about 88 percent having problems with the wall (46.7 percent cracks, 31.7 percent peel offs and 10 percent partly broken down).

Painting

Painting protects walls as well as serving aesthetic purpose, but as high as 89.8 percent of all buildings surveyed had problem with painting. The problem of painting is more pronounced in buildings of UEW-K and GPS where 92.3 percent and 91.2 percent of all their buildings surveyed being dirty, faded, and no painting.

The problem of painting is most prominent in single unit houses and least in tenement houses affecting 75 percent, 85 percent and 93.3 percent of all tenement, bungalows and single unit buildings respectively.

Windows and Doors

The major problems with the wooden members of the buildings surveyed are that they are either partly or completely broken down as a result of the wooden members being rotten due to penetration of water resulting from lack of coating and poorly treated wood. The problem of wooden members is most prominent in buildings of UEW-K and least in GHS. It has accounted for 69.2 percent, 44.7 percent and 14.3 percent of buildings of UEW-K, GPS and GHS surveyed respectively.

In the house types, the problem is most prominent in single unit houses affecting
72.7 percent of all surveyed single unit houses. However bungalows have the most completely broken down windows and doors.

5.2.3 General Building Conditions

On the whole, 83 percent of all residential buildings of public institutions surveyed have maintenance problems. Maintenance problem is more prominent in GPS and UEW-K with 41.2 percent and 30.8 percent of their buildings in a bad condition, with 14.3 percent of those of GHS in the same situation.

Building maintenance problems are more pronounced in single unit houses than tenement houses and bungalows with 48.4 percent, 37.5 percent and 5 percent

respectively in bad condition. However, tenement houses had the highest buildings with good condition, with 37.5 percent of all tenement houses surveyed in good condition requiring the least or no maintenance.

5.2.4 Causes of Maintenance Problems in Public Buildings
  1. From the study, the major causes of poorly maintained public buildings include the following:
  2. The age of buildings of public institutions. Houses deteriorate with age, with buildings between the ages of fifty and sixty and above exhibiting serious maintenance problems and thus requiring replacement of some building elements or at least rehabilitation. Houses surveyed were classified into younger buildings (less than 20 years old), medium aged buildings (20-50 years old) and older buildings (above 50 years old). About 84.1% of all buildings surveyed were older buildings above 50 years. All these houses were in fair and bad condition and required maintenance.
  3. There is generally lack of maintenance culture on the part of both the institutions and the occupants, thus resulting in deferred maintenance of buildings by public institutions. This situation is also evident in the lack of preventive maintenance plan by public institutions for their buildings. Occupants also exhibit apathy towards maintaining their buildings holding the view that it is a government property and that whatever the state is no business of theirs.
  4. There is also the problem of over-centralisation of maintenance decisions. Maintenance decisions and building management are taken at the management level at the headquarters and the regional office of the institutions surveyed. The channels through which decisions are brought to the local level are in most cases, too long resulting in the delay of release of funds for maintenance. These bureaucratic processes also affect the reporting of maintenance problems by personnel, since some occupants have failed to report maintenance problems citing this bureaucratic process as a hindrance.
  5. Another obstacle to maintenance of public buildings is funding. Inadequate funds and delays in the release of funds have contributed significantly to the present state of public buildings. This has been worsened by the high cost of building materials, new constructions which often receives more attention than ongoing building maintenance projects and high cost of maintenance resulting from works done by private firms due the low capacity of maintenance staff to undertake such tasks.
  6. There is also pressure on building facilities by number of users. There is inverse relation between population density and the quality of housing conditions. Houses with fewer people had better conditions as against those with large number of occupants.
  7. There is lack of effective national maintenance policy, laws and regulations to compel both managers of public institutions and occupants to undertake maintenance failure of which sanctions can be applied.

5.3 Recommendations

The following are recommendations as a way of dealing with maintenance problems of public institutions housing in Ghana:

  1. There is the need for public institutions to embrace preventive maintenance practice as a high priority rather than adhoc maintenance. To gain optimum benefits from preventive maintenance, building managers should incorporate preventive maintenance tasks into a work-order system and keep systematic maintenance records, either by computer or manually. Managers should evaluate the preventive maintenance program to improve it over time.
  2. Public institutions should ensure that their maintenance department is adequately staffed with the requisite manpower and that employees have appropriate training to competently and safely undertake and complete the maintenance tasks expected of them.
  3. Estate and maintenance managers should oversee periodic inspections of buildings’ conditions and create an inventory of buildings’ components and equipment. They should plan building inspection, since proper planning of inspection is a sure way to reduce cost of maintenance since doing so can provide insight into future maintenance needs and avoid unnecessary costs.
  4. There should be a state regulation to affect state maintenance of specific building systems. A state building and maintenance code should govern building construction and remodeling. It should also affect accessibility, electricity, energy, fire protection, plumbing and other mechanical components such as elevators. In addition, a National Maintenance Policy should be formulated as part of the National Housing Policy to compel people to undertake maintenance on the buildings they occupy to avoid the situation where huge sums of taxpayers’ money go down the drain through deterioration of public buildings due to lack of maintenance.
  5. There is the need for institution of a maintenance awards scheme for public institutions at the National, Regional and District levels to award institutions that have effectively managed maintenance of their buildings. This will demand that taskforce from the Ministry of Water Resources Works and Housing periodically inspects the condition of building components of public buildings.
  6. Mangers of public institutions should ensure that high quality and durable building materials are used to prolong its life span and minimize the rate of deterioration. Current building designs should also incorporate materials with least maintenance problems, for instance tiling of high rise buildings will solve the problem of painting due to the height of the building. Aesthetic value of new buildings should also be taken into consideration to serve as tourist attraction.
  7. The PWD should be given the mandate to develop a systematic programme of maintaining public buildings since they have the necessary human resource capacity. This will reduce the total cost of maintenance in relation to employing private contractors. The effectiveness of this recommendation will depend on the level of supervision because of the history behind the attitude of employees of such institutions.
  8. Estate and Maintenance managers should develop a multiple-level education strategy to address the differing information needs of their various levels of employees in terms of maintenance of building. This should include safety and health implications about lack of maintenance e.g. food poisoning resulting from falling paint particles or scraps and indoor air quality.
  9. Occupants of government buildings should also shed off their apathy in terms of ownership and maintenance of such property and rather exhibit high sense of patriotism. This can be done through public education and sensitization and strict application of sanctions such surcharging occupants with cost of damage caused as well as eviction from the premises.
  10. There is the need for government to set up a maintenance budget from which all maintenance activities will be drawn. There is the need to set up a National Maintenance Fund similar to that of the Road Fund to mobilize adequate funds to meet maintenance needs of public institutions. In addition, there is the need for the review of the current rents paid by tenant of public buildings to reflect current economic trends and to generate enough funds to undertake maintenance works on these buildings. Improving the conditions of service of public employees will also ensure that tenants are able to do their own maintenance on the buildings.
  11. Finally there is the need for government to put up more public residential buildings in view of the present national deficit in housing which stand at one million(http/www.ghanaweb.com). This housing deficit has resulted in competition for rental housing. Landlords however prefer to rent out their premises to private individuals instead of public officials due to the high rent charged. There is however, the need for regular maintenance of public building put up to protect the huge investment put into it. Building maintenance which is a shared responsibility must be the prime focus for both the occupant and the government (Managers of public institutions).

5.4 Conclusion

The study has established that housing maintenance is a real problem among public institutions in Ghana, with about 83 percent of all residential buildings of public institutions surveyed having maintenance problems. Maintenance problem is more prominent in GPS and UEW-K with 41.2 percent and 30.8 percent of their buildings in a bad condition, with 14.3 percent of those of GHS in the same situation.

Building maintenance problems are more pronounced in single unit houses than tenement houses and bungalows with 48.4 percent, 37.5 percent and 5 percent respectively in bad condition. This has come about as a result of two main factors: Pressure on the single unit buildings due to large number of occupants and preference to the maintenance of bungalows and flats except in emergency situations because the bungalows and the flats are occupied by senior and middle level management respectively while that of the single units are occupied by the lower level personnel.

In addition maintenance culture is relatively higher among occupants of bungalows and tenement buildings than single unit occupant due the differential in income level.

The most widespread maintenance problem according to the study are cracks in walls, faded painting, partly broken windows and doors, exposed foundation and leaking roofs affecting 42 percent, 39.8 percent, 38.6 percent, 30.7 percent and 19.3 percent of residential buildings of the three institutions surveyed.

The maintenance problems the study observed have been influenced by the age of the buildings, lack or absence of a national maintenance policy, inadequate funds and high cost of maintenance, low capacity of maintenance staff, apathy and lack of patriotism on the part of occupants, pressure on buildings due to the number of users among others.

The study concludes by enumerating a number of recommendations aimed at addressing the problem of poor maintenance of public buildings in the country. It is hoped that these recommendations if implemented will contribute in no small way in reducing the maintenance problem plaguing the public sector in the country at the moment.


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