Maintenance Of 6.5 Horse Power Generators (H.P)


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Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME


Dedication


We want to dedicate this project to the Almighty God for his grace to enable us to complete this work. We also dedicate this work to Engr. MONG OKE O. and all members of this project group.


Acknowledgement


We want to acknowledge God for the success of this project. We are also acknowledging engr. Mong Oke O. who has supervised and directed us on how to carryout this project. We are also acknowledging engr. Nkwor C.A (project coordinator), engr. C.N.U Eke (Head of Department).

We are also acknowledging the Department of Mechanical Engineering Federal Polytechnic Nekede for their untiring effort in preparing us for this project. We won’t fail to appreciate and acknowledge the members of this project group for their untiring effort, contributions and continuous enthusiasm towards the completion of this project work. We are saying may God bless you all in Jesus name. Amen.


Abstract


The most important thing in coupling a generator system is to know the parts that will come first before others and which one will house others. This project on ‘’servicing a generator’’ called generator- it born out of the desire for self-servicing and replacing of faulty parts of our own, generator than going to a public mechanic. It contains the basis parts and functions of generator, something you need to be familiar with before servicing.

The fourth chapter is a complete illustrated step by guide to service a 6.5KVAGenerator. The step by step approach makes the work easy and ideal. Any person with simple adherence to this work can use this to maintain and couple a generator set. The total essence of this project work is to teach its reader how to maintain a generator without consulting a technician, this book has been made to illustration the steps an individuals needs to carry out a servicing or maintenance work in his or her power generating system.


Table Of Content


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Scope of the study
  • 1.4 Limitation of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Operation, danger and precaution
  • 3.1 Operation
  • 3.2 Danger
  • 3.3 Precaution

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Maintenance of generator
  • 4.1 Definition of maintenance
  • 4.2 Maintenance work
  • 4.3 Carburetor
  • 4.4 Significance of generator

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary Recommendation and Conclusion
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

It is increasingly popular to service your own generator. In most case, it save money and it guarantees you to get what you want. It also, ensures you to avoid proprietary design many companies use to keep you coming for the new parts best of all, having couple the generator your self, you became very familiar with the system and with generator maintenance tips. We will be focusing on preventive maintenance of power generators as that is want should concern you as a generator owner.

Corrective maintenance should be left; for generator mechanics. One assurance that observing preventive maintenance guideline provided here will reduce your need for corrective maintenance. Following these tips will also ensure you qualify for manufacturer warranty if things go wrong. Here are your generator maintenance tips:study generator in detail before first use your generator comes with a user and manual, which contains most of the information you need, to properly use and maintain your generator. In the manual you will also find information on how to properly start or stop your generator.

It also important to state that the recommended guidelines given here should not be a replacement for reading your generator. When our recommendation conflict with, your generator user manual, we advice you follow your generator manual instead. Inspect Generator and connection before each start check oil and fuel level before starting your generator. If your generator uses coolant (like water), also check the coolant level. Ensure coolant, fuel, and engine oil are in the right level before starting the generator.

Check for leakages in the fuel line or spilled fuel, replace line if broken, clean up fuel spills, before starting your generator. Also inspect the electrical wiring. Use recommended engine oil, check level before. Start your power generator crankcase must be filled with the manufacturer recommended engine oil. If possible buy your engine oil in gallons and ensure that the logo showing that the oil meets the minimum standard required by your generator manufacturer is on the label.

If you must buy in pints ensure to ask the retailer for the container of the engine oil just to be sure it meets the need of your generator. Always ensure that the engine oil level of your crankcase is within limits before starting the generator. Ensure that the oil is clean. As the generator crankcase gets dirty with time it is important that you change all the oil after sometime.

This you do by draining; the crankcase of oil and then refilling with the recommended engine oil. We recommend that “for generator operating in Nigeria this ritual should take place every 2months. Change oil every 2 months; in addition ensure to change your engine oil within the first month of use. Consult your generator manufacturer manual for details. Replace parts with only genuine spares. Make sure the repair mechanic uses the right parts.

When replacing parts like spark plugs make sure they are the ones recommended by your generator manufacturer. Load generator at less than 70% rated capacity for best performance and longevity of your generator; load it at less than 50% of its rated capacity for continuous usage. This recommendation is very important for generators that are used frequently as is usually the case for generators operating in Nigeria. This means that a 6.5KVA generator should not be loaded beyond 1.75KVA.

If you must exceed this limit it should not be for long must not be on a daily basis or you may have to be visiting generator mechanics frequently. Improper loading is the most common cause of generator break down. The funny part is that when your generator breaks down, you blame it on the manufacturer, or china. But we put it to you that you are culprit. A generator usually have two power ratings, the maximum power which is the level of loading that must not be exceeded under any circumstances and the rated power, which is actually the power that should interest you as it determines the level of load your generator can handle. Note that although your generator can handle full loading, it is not recommended’ for generators used frequently.

It is better you limit loading to less than 70% (or even 50%) of generator full load. Your electric generator should not be overloaded. It must be operated within the rated power. If you notice the sound of your generator changing due to excessive, loading switch-off some appliances. If the generator automatically switch off due to over-loading. Turn-off all appliances before turning on generator again.

For an optimum generator operation you should operate the generator at about half the rated power, load and unload generator gradually improper loading of generators is one of the most common causes of generator break down. Do not start your generator with everything connected. Start your generator at no load, then apply load gradually. Turn off all appliances, turn off control switch, then start your generator, turn on control switch, then turn on your appliances gradually one after another starting those with higher voltage, like your TV


1.1 Background Of Study

1.1.1 Definition

A power plant is defined as a machine or assembly of equipment that generates and delivers a flow of mechanical or electric energy. Focusing on electric power generator, the main equipment needed for the generation of electric power is the generator. During coupling, it is connected to a prime mover which runs; it and the electricity are generated. the type of prime move determines the type of power plant.

The major types of plant are:

  1. Steam power plant
  2. Internal combustion engine power plant
  3. Hydro electric power plant
  4. Gas tubing power plant
  5. Nuclear power plant

1.1.2 Our Concern Internal Combustion Engine Power Plant (Mobile) Known As Generating Set Or Generator

An electrical generator is a device that converts L mechanical energy to electric energy. The reserve conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. Motor and generators have many similarities, a generator forces electric ‘charger to move through an external electric circuit but it does not create electricity or charge which is already present in the wire of winding. It is some what analogous to a water pumo which creates a flow of water but does not create the water suite.

The two main parts of a generator can be described in either mechanical term.

Mechanical
Rotor:

The rotating part of an electric machine (generator)

Stator:

The stationary part of an electrical machine (generator)

Electrical
Armature:

the power producing component of an electrical machine in a generator, alternator or dynamo. The armature windings generate the electrical current. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator.

Field:

The magnetic field component of an electrical machine. The magnetic Field of the dynamo or can be provides by either electromagnetic or permanent mounted on either the rotor or stator. The magnetic field will magnet the rotor as will be rotation inside the magnets because power transferred into the feud circuit’s much less than in the armature circuit, the A.C. generators nearly always have the field winding, only a small amount of feild current must be moving rotor using scrip rings. The rotation of the armature coil generates the required current and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR passes the generated current through the A.C. cables


1.1 Objectives Of The Study

The aim of, the study is to impact the readers the skills of coupling generator as possible takes.


1.2 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study will be strictly restricted portable or mobile generators ranging from 6.5KVA-7KVA


1.3 Limitation Of The Study

Many constraints limited the extent this work would have gone. They are such things as:

Time:

This is the time taken to run the entire project. We do not have all the time in our hands especially when we combine it with our regular academic work and other things.

Finance:

We do not have the fund to execute this research work.

Lack of information:

There is no information base like book on this topic but we being the first to write on this topic “ coupling of generator’’ did well with the few related ones we found.


1.4 Significance Of The Study

Assembling of generator, operation and maintenance servicing are regular works for a mechanical engineering performs any person, student, or researcher reading this. Work will benefit from knowing how to these work


1.5 Definition Of Terms

Electric Generator:

A device that converts mechanical energy to electric energy. Setups:is to take the necessary steps to make equipment ready for use.

Stator:

The power, producing component of an electrical machine.

Armature:

The power producing component of an electrical machine.

Field:

The magnetic field component of an electrical machine.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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