The Use Of Locally Obtained Rubber Latex As Binder In Paint Formulation

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

The Use Of Locally Obtained Rubber Latex As Binder In Paint Formulation


The main area covered by this project was a research into the desirability of using locally obtained rubber later as loinder in paint manufacture.

Considering the huge amount of money being spent on the importation of PVac (Poly vingl acetate) which is widely used as binder for paint manufacturing the efforts of this project cannot be over – emphasized. Going though this project, it will be agreed that a gaint stride has been made towards the reduction of foreign exchange being siphoned out of the country through the importation of Pavc for paint manufacturing.

The natural rubber later used for this purpose was collected from Ozozo forest Rubber plation in Delta State. This later will naturally coagulate within 4 – 2,4 house, if unpreserved, therefore the later used for this project was preserved with an anti – coagulant (Ammonia) to avoid coagulation. Experiments carried out on this later exposed some of its characteristics. Naturally a freshly tapped Rubber later will have a PH of between 6.8-7.0, but because of the ammonia used in the preservation the PH was found to be 10.97. Another property of the later which affect the pigment volume concentration (PVC) of paints coating is the dry rubber content or the total solid content which was found through experiment to be 42%.

The normal process of paint manufacturing was employed. Shere were two samples of paints produced each differing from the other by the weight of either PVAC or the rubber later used. One sample made of PVAC as a binder was regarded as standard and the other one with rubber later as binder compared with it.

In each case the binder was added last since it is known that it will not withstand the high shear stress developed in the machine during dispersion.

  • The PH of the various samples were 8.1 and 10.15 accordingly.
  • The second sample with rubber later as binder has a PH value outside the standard PH.
  • The paint produced can be compared with the standard favourably.

Difficulty encountered during the formulation include the inability of Natrosol to dissolve due to delay in pouring the dissolved natrosol in the water faskly and then pour into the other dispersed components. This however was poured off and new formulation made which game the desired result.

The binder power in PVA formulation is much better an concise with that of standard point and it has greater fitness.

Chapter One


The origin of paint and painting started thousands of yeas ago.

It can be rightly said that the desire to decorate their mummies sparked of this concept in Egypt around 15,000.

Since then, this practice has gradually developed through many stages until modern concept of paint and painting came into being. This modern concept was brought about by gradual transformation from old materials and methods of paint making to the use of synthetic material and more modern machinery.

During these early years, the paints were only used on mammies, cares and tombs for the purposes of decorating them only. But now the modern use of paint serves the dual purpose of decoration as well as preventing the substrate on which it is applied. Because of this dual manufactured to meet a specified condition by the use of modern equipment and synthetic materials.

Here in Nigeria, the first modern paint industry was established in 1962, and today we have more than 100 of such industries all using entirely imported materials and equipment for the purposes of producing paint.

Considering the staggering amount of foreign exchange the importation of these materials and equipment by the 100 industries will be directed towards the production of some of these raw materials within the country.

Rubber hater which is a product of hevea brasiciensis tree extensively grown in the western part of the country can be use as a binder in paint formulations against the PAVC which is currently being imported. It is believed that if these persistent calls from both government and individuals for proper heamessment of local raw materials for our local industries are as serious as they want the public to believe, then initial effort should be towards the use of natural rubber later as a brinder for paint manufacturing as there is sure evidence that it will succeed.

Meanwhile the first slot has been fired in this direction by this project.

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Based on the fests carried out on the paint samples so produced, it was discovered that the sample with rubber latex as binder, though has some commendable qualities but was deficient in some properties.

The viscosities of the paints are very much within the acceptable viscosity range of 95 – 105KU. The opacity of paint with latex as binder was found to be slightly lower than that of standard although it can still be acceptable. The drying time for both samples are the same and within the drying time lag for emulsion paints.

Generally the normal PH of paint coating is between 8 – 9. from PH tests the PH of the latex paint was found to be 10.15. this is above the normal PH, Therefore it cause the paint to smell, and this is due to the presence of emmonia (NH3) that was used to prevent Rubber latex from coagulation by preservation.

One of the most important aspect of the paint that requires further attention is the adhesion quality. It was discovered that latex paint has not good very good adhesion to the surface compared with that which Pva was used. This was due to latex as binder in paint contributing to toughness as wall as improper adhesion. Because of this singular, this paint cannot be used as primer or applied where it will be in direct contact with the fluctuating severe weather condition earthed in all cases to prevent the possible build up of static electricity.

During mixing, the first part of dispersion is put into the mixer. Generally this first part is made up of water, wetting agent, thickness and antifoam solution. After putting this first part, the impeller is lowered very close to the bottom of the container.

Normally it is started at a very low speed to avoid splashing. Then the speed is gradually increased until a good vortex is obtained so that the first part of the mix can be dispersed as quickly and efficiently as possible.

When the first part is completely dispersed, the second part which are pigments and extenders are added. When fluffy pigments are used. It is always necessary to cover the top of the mixing container to reduce pigment flying.

In any case through out mixing period, extractor should be used to draw off pigment dust and solvent fumes.

However, we are optimistic that if very efficient equipments and further treatments of latex are carried out latex paint will be improved to satisfy all the parameters required of a good paint.

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