Use Of Local Raw Materials And Animal Bone To Simulate The Production Of Human Teeth For Dental Restorative Practice In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME

Project and Seminar Material for Mechanical Engineering ME


Animal bones (cow), clay, feldspar and quartz where used to simulate the production of human teeth. The animal bones also referred to as hydroxyapatite sample was collected from an abattoir in Amansea, Anambra state, Nigeria. It was fired, calcined, crushed and sieved then used as one of the major constituent to fabricate various dental samples. The kankara clay sample was collected from Kastina state while quartz and feldspar were obtained from kogi state.

The dental samples were produced by slip casting method using Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) mould. The specimens produced were to be fired at 1200ᵒC and relevant parameters: shrinkage (%), density (g/ml), porosity (%), water absorption (%), strength kg/cm2 and even chemical analysis of product samples were to be determined. Unfortunately, due to the epileptic power supply in Projects’ Development Institute (PRODA), the above targets were not met because for quite some months, no electric supply has lasted beyond one good hour.


Animal bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton. Animal bone supports and protects the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cell, store minerals and also enables mobility as well as support for the body.

Bones come in variety of shapes and sizes and they have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard. Bone is an active tissue composed of different types of bone cells e.g. osteblasts are involved in the creation and mineralization of bone, ostecytes and osteclasts are involved in the reabsorption of bone tissue.

Bone consists of living cells embedded in mineralized organic matrix. This matrix consists of organic components mainly collagen-organic referring to materials produced as a result of human body and inorganic components, primary hydroxyapatite and other salts of calcium and phosphate. Above 30% of the cellular part of bone consists of the organic components and 70% of salts.

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