The Level Of Political Participation In Rural Areas

Political Science Education Project and Seminar Material

The Level Of Political Participation In Rural Areas


Abstract


The findings of this research indicate that, majority of respondents based on age are between age range of twenty four years to twenty nine (24-29) which constituted the highest percentage. Likewise, the research findings, revealed that majority of respondents participated in the last general election in which most of them capacitated as voters, while, the majority of the respondents revealed they influenced by money and religion to participate in the last general election. However, research findings shown that majority of respondents indicate illiteracy are in place to hinders respondent participation in the last general election. Consequently, the research findings shows that, majority of the respondents indicate political elites are the instigators of electoral related vices, in the last general election. Going by the analysis, majority of respondents indicated that literacy will improve respondent turn out during the nigerian democracy.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Political participation includes the political activities of citizens aimed at influencing the political process. Such participation could be either in an individual or group basis. The political process may be the ways, directions and methods of governance or the input of the outcomes of the process. The political activities that may involve their participation: selection of leaders, influencing decision of government and the process of governance. Okafor & Okeke (2008).

Political participation includes those action of private cities by which they seek to influence or support government and politics. Political participation could either be conventional or orthodox and unconventional or unorthodox. Writing on convention and non-conventional political participation. Janda etal state as follows:-

Thus, conventional participation is legal, constitutional, acceptable and normal. Activities here may include voting, campaigns and attendance to party meetings, expressing political opinions, standing for elections, registration as a party member and as a voter for an election contesting for elective offices, party funding. These activities are in consonance with the normal political process. Unconventional political participation includes those activities that are not acceptable, not regarded as lawful and legal, not sanctioned or not normal. They include such activities as riots, strikes, violent, demonstration, arson, boycotts, rebellion, terrorism, cultism, protests, and the like. It is felt that a higher propensity for the emergence of unconventional participation is accentuated by the existence of narrow or very limited conventional modes. For people to express their feelings and be heard under a trained mode they have to resort to unconventional approaches.

Conventional (orthodox) political participation is of two fold. There could be supportive participation or influencing participation. Under the supportive dimension, our citizens express allegiance or loyalty to the state and government. Examples include singing the national anthem, reciting the national pledge or making reference to such symbols as the national flag and the coat of arms, turning out for voting purpose, etc.

The influencing dimension is concerned with efforts to modify or reverse government policy to suit political interests. Examples include trying to secure some benefits from government, asking for special social or welfare services from the government such as setting up a health canter, construction or rehabilitation of roads, sitting, a public school or police post. e. t. c.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

From the above background of study, political participation is the vehicle through which citizens of a given society communicate their interests, demands, desires, support and or proposition to the authoritative decisions of the superstructure. However it seems the levels of people participation in politics are narrow may be due to the assertion that โ€œpolitics is a dirty gameโ€. Since 2003, democracy has come to be regarded as the source for political participation active towards rural direction. Therefore, this study would seek to find solutions to the following problem:-

  1. Low level of education.
  2. The culture of corruption.
  3. Parochial political culture.
  4. Subject political culture.
  5. Primordial sentiment and low socio-economic development.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions to be investigated are:

  1. What is the profile cause of low level of education in ruralities of Ojo?
  2. Can culture of corruption affect political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
  3. Can parochial political culture contribute to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
  4. Is there any measure to be used to determine subject political culture in political participation in Ruralities of Ojo?
  5. What is the consequence of low socio-economic development on ruralities of Ojo?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

To guide the study, the following null research hypotheses were raised to be tested:

  1. Low level of education cannot be significantly responsible for the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  2. Culture of corruption cannot affect level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  3. Parochial political culture cannot contribute to low level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
  4. Low socio-economic development cannot be significantly responsible for level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.

1.5 Scope of Study

The scope of this study is the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The scope was chosen due to the low level of political participation of the people in the area and individual development.


1.9 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study will encourage active participation of individuals in the political process of their community. The study will also make the citizens to share in governance through expression of consent, choice, rejection of the leader and certain policies considers obnoxious. Through participation, the citizen makes some input in governance through the expression of demands, preferences, orientations, judgments and political process.


1.10 Delimitation of the Study

The study will be limited to the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state on the level of political participation in 2008-2009.


1.11 Definition Of Terms

1. Influence:

Power to produce an effect, esp. on character, beliefs or action.

2. Political Participation:

Is the involvement of individual in political activities. It can be through electional activities covers voting, campaigns, seeking to persuade others to vote for a given candidate or party.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

The findings of this research indicate that, majority of respondents based on age are between age range of twenty four years to twenty nine (24-29) which constituted the highest percentage. Moreover, majority of the respondents based on ethnic groups, are Hausa/Fulani, while the analysis also revealed that most of the respondents based on marital status are singles, also analysis shown that, majority of respondents practice Islam as their religion, however, majority of respondents based on educational status under gone secondary and tertiary education and majority of respondents based on occupation are students.

Likewise, the research findings, revealed that majority of respondents participated in the last general election in which most of them capacitated as voters, while, the majority of the respondents revealed they influenced by money and religion to participate in the last general election with reference to table (4.3.3) revealed that respondents indicated those assess the respondent participation in the last general election as good constituted the majority.
However, research findings shown that majority of respondents indicate illiteracy are in place to hinders respondent participation in the last general election. Consequently, the research findings shows that, majority of the respondents indicate political elites are the instigators of electoral related vices, in the last general election. Going by the analysis, majority of respondents indicated that literacy will improve respondent turn out during the nigerian democracy.

The thirty two (32) respondents shown they are not aware of any non-governmental organization campaigning against electoral vices and majority of the respondents assess the activities of those group as good


5.2 Conclusion

Lack of adequate knowledge or information on nigerian democracy, coupled with low level of depriviation, unemployment, electoral violence and absence of free and fair elections are in place to affect the respondent participation in the nigerian democracy in Rurality of ojo metropolis.

Consequently, more of the respondent participated in the last general election in Rurality of ojo metropolis are motivated by religion. From their leaders and money given by political elites, political elits are mostly found the instigators of electoral related vices in Rurality of ojo Metropolis. It is therefore, necessary for all stakeholders in the nigerian democracy to appropriate specific role to the respondent. They need to be guided and sport in the initiatives and interest in public and political causes. This is necessary to sustain the democratic culture while educating and empowering the manifest needed leadership attribute that would prepare them for a better society in future. Investing in respondent is investment in greater future.


5.3 Recommendations

Considering the outcome of the research findings the following recommendations are hereby made in order to increase the participation of respondent in nigerian democracy in Rurality of ojo metropolis

  1. There is need for government and Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to accord much priority toward increasing turn out respondent in nigerian democracy.
  2. There is also need for government and Non-governmental organizations to adopt to increase respondent turn out during the nigerian democracy.
  3. Nevertheless, there is need for government and civil society to organize regular educational programmes i.e capacity building in every part of Rurality of ojo metropolis in which they described how electoral related vices affecting the respondent
  4. Those who are educated among the respondent should volunteer to educate and advice others on the importance of their participations and problem of electoral realted vices
  5. Media organizations i.e Television, radio, should continue to educate, enlightening and inform respondent to participate in nigerian democracy.
  6. There is need for political elite to stay away from money politics that could easily influences respondent into electoral vices.
  7. There is need for government to eradicate poverty among respondent, through job creation so as to allow successful nigerian democracy to take place.

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