The Use And The Learning Outcome Of Smart Devices By Biology Teachers In The Post Covid19 Era
This study will investigate on the use and the learning outcome of smart devices by biology teachers in the post covid19 era. These schools are both private and government oriented. The instruments and methods of collecting data are questionnaires and interview check lists: A total of 52 participants are involved in the study. Qualitative approach is the approach that will be used in the study. The major objective of the study is to establish, the extent to which teachers are confident in using smart devices. It will further investigate to determine the effect of these devices in teaching. In order to improve students’ academic performance in schools, the will recommend improved infrastructure. It might help students improve in issues that are found to be affecting their performance. Additionally, the ministry of education should provide adequate training to teachers on how best to apply smart devices in teaching.
1.1 Background to the Study
Education has for long been recognized as a basic instrument of economic growth, social development and technological advancement of any society or nation. It is in recognition of this fact that government are required to commit immense resources to ensure the provision of education for their citizens and also tailored their policies towards ensuring that it is made accessible to the generality of their citizenry.
It is the key to upward mobility that lead to the progressive modernization of societies. Education indeed empowers any nation to rise to the challenges of social, cultural, economic and technological change (Oyebade,Oladipo & Adetoro 2008). As a result, virtually all countries of the world are bracing up for the challenges of modern life. Nigeria should not be an exception. Nigerian tertiary institutions should embrace the challenges in teaching and learning with technology by creating learning environment that promote active learning, critical thinking, collaborative learning and knowledge creation.
Developing 21st century literacy (information, digital and visual) among students and encouraging faculty adoption and innovation in teaching and learning with information technology, and advancing innovation in teaching and learning with technology in an era of budget cuts.
Based on this, highly effective school system and improved students’ outcome should be the key objectives of the government and private sector. This is because education of highest quality is the foundation for future of the country. For the progress of a nation and the enrichment of society in general, there is need for quality education because a country‟s literate population is its asset. In today‟s world of technology and global competition, quality education is of utmost importance for societal development, and the future of the nation. Therefore, the skills, knowledge, and values to be imparted to students must be of high quality.
Business education is education for and about business or training in business skills (Esene, 2012). According to Okoli (2010), business education is that aspect of the total educational programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to perform effectively in the business world as a producer and/or consumer of goods and services that business offers. Business education is an important part of general education which emphasizes skill acquisition for office use. It is a multi-disciplinary programme that encompasses
Accounting, Secretarial Studies now Office Technology and Management (OTM) and Marketing/Distributive education (Okorie, 2001). An individual who receives training in business education can easily develop potentials for entrepreneurship pursuits especially in this era of economic recession and unemployment. The programme is concerned mainly with the development of relevant and saleable skills and knowledge that would enable an individual to function effectively in the world of work.
In order to actualize these lofty objectives of business education towards national, socio-economic growth and development, educational institutions and their systems must function in line with set standards. Due to this, a systematic qualitative administration, teaching and learning are required of business education in Nigeria.
However, business education being skill acquiring discipline require the use of laboratories adequately equipped with information and communication technology resources for practical skills acquisition as well as provision of information and knowledge needed for high quality teacher preparation tantamount to teacher effectiveness in the labour market. Today‟s labour market demands a quality workforce that can use technology as a means to increase productivity and creativity. This includes networks such as fixed wireless and satellite broadcasting networks, telecommunications and applications like the Internet, Intranet, database management systems and multi-media tools. These skills include identifying reliable sources of information, effectively accessing these sources of information, synthesizing and communicating that information to colleagues and associates.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become key tools and have a revolutionary impact on how people see and live in the world. It has become so important that every country, organization or institution no matter how highly or lowly placed want to identify and embrace ICT. The place of ICTs in education and the world in general cannot be ignored. Modern day business are conducted and facilitated through the use of telephones, fax machines and computer communication networks through the Internet. This phenomenon has given birth to the contemporary e-commerce, e-medicine, e-banking and e-education among others. Bandele (2006) summed up that ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, Internet and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavour.
Bandele posited that ICT is simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as super highway through which information is transmitted and shared by the people all over the world. Information and Communication Technology resources can be described as tools through which people work with the information and communication processing needs of an organization. It encompasses the computer hardware, software; the network and several other devices (video, audio, photography, camera, etc) that convert information (text), images, sound, and motion and so on into common digital form (Vannili, 2015). Smart devices have a wider spectrum of application and utilization with enormous relevance to schools teaching and learning activities.
Utilization of Smart devices in teaching and learning is a good development with tremendous potentials for qualitative teaching and learning output on tertiary education in general and business education in particular. This is evident as the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004.17) places emphasis on the provision and utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) when it states that “in recognition of the prominent roles of information and communication technology in advancing knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern world, there is urgent need to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into education in Nigeria”.
The Federal Ministry of Education (2011a) affirmed further that, quality learning outcome depends on the quality of teaching and learning inputs and the qualitative processing of the inputs which among others include the use of ICT facilities for teaching and learning. As Ijaduola (2010a) asserted, the efficiency of the product of educational institution is the result of inputs (teachers, equipment, and infrastructural facilities classroom, laboratories, libraries, computers and consumable materials) as well as the process (instructional delivery) such that where the input and process are faulty, the output will be faulty.
Over the years, the challenge in business education programme in Nigerian tertiary institutions has been the quality of the graduates in relation to employment demands. Despite numerous efforts of relevant stakeholders, criticisms still abound about the extent to which the graduates satisfy the demands of employers in different organization in the country. In other words, there is no clear evidence that the utilization of ICT has contributed to effective teaching and learning in business education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria generally and south-west in particular.
Utilization of Smart devices is expected to contribute to effective teaching and learning in business education programme and other fields of study in Nigeria. The extent of utilization by teachers and students for qualitative outcome is yet to be determined. As posited by Bamiro and Liverpool (2002) and Akuegwu, Nwiue and Agba (2008), teachers can only transfer ideas and skills to their students if they are masters of their trades. Aginam (2006) specifically asserted that the levels at which teachers utilize ICT facilities in Nigerian Schools are less than five percent.
Gender is a factor that may determine the outcome of this study. Gender is the sexual characteristics designated to a person by the environment. Abul (2007) refers to gender as the socially defined capabilities and attributes assigned to persons on the basis of their alleged sexual characteristics. Similarly, Adesope, Asiabaka, and Agumagu (2009) explained that gender is the roles, attitudes, behaviour and values ascribed by the society to male and female. In the past, there has been a general view supported by research that male student perform better than female in practical oriented courses. For instance, Anigbogu (2002) pointed out that some cultures see male more superior to female and that such feelings is manifested in every aspect of their lives. Supporting this view, Onyemelukwe (2005) explained that men use Internet and other Smart devices more than women. Also, Liverpool, Marut, and Ndam (2011) investigated the existing levels of ICT proficiency among male and female academic staff of university of Putra, Malaysia (UPM) covering word processing, spreadsheet processing, data-base management, presentation software, e-mail, world wide web, multimedia and virtual class application and reported that gap exists as male excelled in the use of web while female excelled in the use of e-mail.
Status is another factor that may determine the usage of Smart devices in schools in Nigeria. According to Suskie (2013), status is the position or rank of someone or something when compared to others in the society, organization, group etc while in the word of Vavoula (2009), status is the current state of something, the position or rank in relation to others. According to Franklin (2006), status is the particular condition that someone or something is at a specific time. From the above definitions, the word status can be said to be the current state of something or its position or state of affairs at a particular time. Status as far as used in this study denotes teachers and students of business education in Nigeria schools.
Ownership of institution is also a factor that may determine the utilization of Smart devices in schools. Ownership of schools in Nigeria ranges from federal, state and private individuals or groups which may determine the funding, provision of resources and quality of services rendered. Bassey, Umoren, Akuegwu, Udida and Akpama (2007) noted that the academic staff in federal schools fared better than state academic staff in their job performance including the use of ICT. Supporting this view, Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukidem and Jaja (2011) found that federal schools utilizes ICT facilities more than state schools due to funding. The author further buttressed that federal schools are more funded than state schools. It is on the basis of the above varied opinions as regard gender, status and ownership of schools in relation to provision and usage of Smart devices that the researcher deemed it fit to consider the significant level of these three variables to see their influence on the opinion of the respondents.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigerian government and people are making significant progress towards providing education for all but appear to be losing out in the quality of education. The quality of education is the prime factor that determines the worth and significance of the system to both the recipients and the society at large. In Nigerian education system, qualitative education is a major concern to stakeholders including employers and the government. Ajayi and Adegbesan (2007) asserted that the quality of graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria is almost nothing to be proud of in the public. Similarly, Elele in Yusuf (2007) noted that the Nigerian education scene is quite impressive
quantitatively but qualitatively deficient.
In developed countries of the world, ICTs have been found to facilitate qualitative teaching and learning in different fields of education. If Smart devices are optimally utilized in business education by competent teachers, qualitative learning outcome in the programme will be guaranteed. However, researchers such as Aginam (2006), Akuegwu, Nwiue and Agba (2008) and Onasanya (2010) reported that most tertiary institutions teachers in Nigeria lack adequate pedagogical knowledge for effective utilization of Smart devices for teaching. It is uninteresting and common to see Nigerian business education graduates enroll in roadside computer centers to acquire ICT skills which ought to have been mastered in their schools days. There seems to be a gap in the practical skills especially as regards the Smart devices utilization proficiency in the present teaching of business education courses.
From the studies carried out by Bolaji (2007) and Kelly (2004) it was revealed that ICT application in tertiary institutions fall below expectation. It was observed from the complaints of some employers of labour that business education graduates especially those recruited by local and multi-national private companies could not manipulate basic Smart devices which are fundamental tools of operations in the companies (Anoke, 2008). This may not be unconnected with the reports that Smart devices are not adequately utilized in teaching business education courses in the nations‟ tertiary institutions. Students and teachers have also expressed their dissatisfaction with the use of obsolete equipment and machines like manual typewriters, in teaching and learning in the field of business education when the work environments have become automated. If objective steps are not taken to enhance utilization of smart in the teaching and learning business education especially in the schools, the products will remain incapable of performing in the office and business environment of the current technological era. There are however no empirical evidences to ascertain the actual situation regarding the extent of utilization of Smart devices in schools in South-West Nigeria. This requires an empirical study to inform and direct remedial actions by relevant stakeholders hence the imperativeness of this study.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the use and the learning outcome of smart devices by biology teachers in the post covid19 era
1.4 Objectives of the study
- To assess the confidence of teachers in using smart devices in the teaching
- To assess the extent teachers, use smart devices in schools in Nigeria
- Investigate if smart device use contributes to education in schools
1.5 Significance of the Study
Findings of this study would be of immense benefits to different groups of people and entities such as business education teachers and students of Nigerian institutions, the programme administrators in the institutions, business education curriculum planners and policy makers, employers of labour, government, the society in general and future researchers.
Findings of the study would create awareness among business education teachers on the contribution of ICT to quality in the programme. This could cause them to embrace the challenge of embarking on retraining to acquire relevant competencies for effective utilization of smart devices.
Students would benefit from the findings of the study as the effective utilization of Smart devices in instructional delivery by their teachers would cause them to develop creative thinking and deeper interest in their studies. It will make them participate actively in the teaching and learning process in other to possess necessary skills for success in employment.
The findings of this study might also benefit researchers by adding to the pool of information that already exists in this area. Researchers can therefore fall back on information gathered here by replicating this study in another geo-political zone.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study determined the use and the learning outcome of smart devices by biology teachers in the post covid19 era.. Only schools that offer biology in the area were covered and moderating variables were gender, status and institution ownership.
1.7 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- How confident are teachers in using smart devices in the teaching?
- To what the extent does teachers use smart devices in schools in Nigeria?
- Does smart device use contribute to education in schools?
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents discussion of results of the study, conclusions, implications of the study, recommendations, limitation of the study and suggestions for further research.
Results of this study were discussed in this section under the following headings:
Use of smart devices in Nigerian Schools
Findings of the study showed that teachers in schools in South-West Nigeria use Smart devices at a small extent as shown by cluster mean. This finding is in consonance with that of Okeke, Ezenwafor and Umoru (2013) which stated that university teachers‟ utilization of ICT facilities for quality instructional delivery is significantly low. Also, finding of Akuegwe, Ntukidem, Ntukidem and Jaja (2011) revealed that extent of ICT utilization for students‟ learning in Nigerian tertiary institutions is low. This finding buttressed the assertion of Okeke (2008) that although all tertiary institutions have made ICT literacy ompulsory for teachers and students, many institutions appear not to reap the potential of ICT on students learning. The finding also agreed with the report of Okolocha and Nwadiani (2015) that Smart devices are rarely utilized for teaching biology.
Schools in South-South Nigeria. Meanwhile, students‟ and teachers‟ moderate utilization of some Smart devices could be as a result of their self provision and private use of some of the Smart devices for learning, teaching and research. Supporting this, Akpan (2014) reported that majority of teachers now have their personal laptop connected to the internet through the use of their personal modems with which they can access information, communicate quickly with both students and colleagues and also keep track of students records. Based on the findings low Utilization of smart devices could also be attributed to low level of ICT literacy among teachers, poor funding by government, limited availability of Smart devices, epileptic power supply, time constraint and management attitude.
Contributions of Smart devices to Education
Findings of the study indicated that Smart devices contribute to education in schools in South West Nigeria at great extent as perceived by students and teachers.
This finding is in consonance with the finding of Fetherson in Tella (2011) that integration of ICT into curriculum package for teaching and learning yielded a positive result for both teachers and students. Similarly, it is in agreement with the findings of Ezeani and Akpotohwo (2014) that the role of ICT facilities in the teaching and learning of accounting education is of great extent. This result confirms the intention of government for integrating ICT into the curriculum of tertiary institution because it enhances teaching and learning in different ways. ICT based teaching and learning makes teaching easy and learning interesting. ICT provides activity based learning whereby students fully involve in teaching/learning process (Tella, 2011). In this technological era, the role of ICT in enhancing teaching and learning cannot be overemphasized which is reflected in the respondents‟ mean rating on extent ICT contributes to education.
5.2 Implications of the Study
The findings in this research work revealed that Smart devices by students and teachers was at a small extent, meaning that qualitative teaching and learning in Education of schools in South-West is not guaranteed. The graduates can hardly be adequately equipped with relevant ICT skills and knowledge for success in employment and competitiveness in the global workplace of the current technological era.
Besides, the state of our educational sector is nothing to be proud of due to low budgetary allocation to the sector which is less than 10 percent. This has led to inadequate provision of instructional facilities that supposed to promote qualitative delivery of instruction, knowledge and skills to the students. Regrettably, the Nigerian budgetary allocation over the last five decades has been abysmally low and has become a serious source of concern.
Despite the fact that UNESCO has recommended that countries devote at least 26% of their annual budgets to education. This underscore the importance attached to education in developing and transforming a society.
Lastly, the intention of the Federal and State Government was to provide facilities that would promote ICT use and knowledge across all levels of education. Although this is laudable, there is no evidence yet of workable, legally approved ICT framework for the sector. In these circumstances, implementation processes would definitely be lopsided, and governed by nepotism, tribalism, and political undertones.
Based on the findings, conclusions and implications of this study, the following recommendations are made:
- University management should make the environment conducive by providing Smart devices for education to boost students and teachers utilization for quality teaching and learning.
- Schools management should engage, encourage and sponsor their education teachers and laboratory technologist for re-training programmes to update their ICT knowledge, skills and competencies to effectively utilize the resources for quality instructional delivery in their programme.
- Schools management should enter into partnership with ICT manufacturing organizations to assist in improving the supply of the resources for their academic programmes towards qualitative teaching and learning process.
- Management of schools should develop sustainable preventive and corrective maintenance culture by servicing and repairing the available Smart devices for optimal utilization by teachers and students.
- Government at the federal and state level should prioritize the funding of education sector to meet up with the recommendation of UNESCO and ensure adequate procurement of Smart devices
for effective educational activities in schools.
- Government should make stringent policies to enforce and strengthen Utilization of smart devices to support learning and other programmes of schools to meet global standard of the 21st century.
- National Schools Commission should visit accredited university a year after the accreditation of its academic programme to see that all facilities used to gain accreditation abound, in order to curb window dressing that has become the order during accreditation exercises.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
The researcher suggests the following areas for further study:
- Assessment of information and communication technology skills and competencies possessed by postgraduate students for effective academic job performance in South-West Nigeria
- Effect of using computer interactive board for instructional delivery on students‟ academic achievement in financial accounting in secondary schools in South-West Nigeria.
- Assessment of the impact of information and communication technology on quality instructional delivery in education in colleges of education in South-West Nigeria.
- Assessment of quality assurance of educations in Nigeria.
- Evaluation of correlation between usage of ICTs and administrative support in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
- Appraisal of proficiency and role of ICT as a change agent for higher education in Nigeria.
- Replication of this study in other zones in Nigeria.
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