Learning Facilities And Pupils’ Academic Performance In Basic Science In Primary Schools In Ikono Local Government Area

Integrated Science Education Project and Seminar Material

Learning Facilities And Pupils’ Academic Performance In Basic Science In Primary Schools In Ikono Local Government Area


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The study was carried out to ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, determine whether the extent teacher utilizes learning facilities in teaching basic science in primary schools, and determine the impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The study also revealed that the impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science? Includes: it simulates pupils interest in learning of basic science, it provides pupils with better understanding of basic science, it improves pupils learning outcome in basic science, and it enhances pupils academic achievement in basic science. Therefore, it is recommended that federal government should most importantly provide needed funding that supports state and local educational efforts and to help build and modernize learning facilities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over a decade and more especially in different facets of life, non-specialists, parents, clergies educationists, etc. have been very much concerned about the relationship between learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools. Some are of the opinion that learning facilities have a direct relationship with pupils’ academic performance, others hold that inadequate learning facilities can have an adverse effect on pupils’ performance. Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important than the teachers and learners are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that go on there. This is the essence of the school facilities (Alimi 2014).

Learning according to Osakwe (2006) is a natural process of pursuing meaningful goals, discovering and constructing meaning from information and experience filtered through the learners unique perceptions, thoughts and feelings. Hilgard (1998) views Learning as the process by which an activity originates or is changed through reacting with the environment provided that the change cannot be explained on the basis of automatic response (i.e. reflex), maturation (i.e. growth) or temporary state of the individual, that is tiredness, hunger and drugs. Okoye (2000) defined Learning as any change in behaviour that is a result of experience and that cause people to face latter situation differently.

Learning facilities refer to human resource facilities, physical facilities, and instructional materials equipment. Human resources include teachers, store attendants, librarians and library attendants, and laboratory assistants to mention but a few. Physical facilities and instructional materials equipment on the other hand, comprise classrooms, staff rooms, administrative blocks, dormitories, libraries, laboratories, examination halls, teachers’ quarters, textbooks, audio-visual materials and items of furniture, laboratory chemicals, and equipment (Adeyemi, 2010).

Ani in Ndu, Ocho, and Okeke (2017) defined physical facilities and equipment as the location, the school buildings, and other material resources provided in the school for the purpose of enhancing teaching and learning processes. According to him, physical facilities and equipment include the fixed and mobile structures and materials in the school such as the classroom buildings, laboratories, laboratory equipment, the audio and visual aids. The importance of learning facilities can never be over-emphasized. It is the talk of the day in our national dailies. The availability of human resources and physical facilities ensures effective teaching and learning and is closely correlated with the pupils’ performance. Ike (2017) attributes pupils’ low performance in Basic sciences to the lack of qualified staff. According to him, there has been an unprecedented expansion at all levels of education, which has not been matched with a corresponding increase in the number of qualified teachers.

Nworgu (2015) on the other hand, asserted that no matter the strength of manpower resources in the system, the educational process must require conducive physical accommodation, libraries, furniture, and playground. Adesina and Ogunsaju (2014) in support noted that for effective teaching and learning situations, facilities and educational goals should be viewed as being closely interwoven and interdependent. In other words, the poor performance of pupils in schools has a direct correlation with the non-availability of school facilities.

The problem generated by the non-availability of learning facilities in public primary schools can no longer be dismissed with a wave of the hand. Ezeocha (2019) maintained that a good teacher may not operate effectively and efficiently under bad conditions of work. Njoku in Ezeocha (2019) stated some of these conditions in his article and they include manageable class size, adequate classrooms, books, writing materials, and well-equipped libraries. He asserted that the best curriculum could be marred by inefficient, unqualified and poorly rewarded, and undisciplined teachers.

Osobonye (2012) stated that the laboratory has been identified as the most suitable place to acquire the right scientific skills and attitudes. In the laboratory, the pupil is afforded the opportunity to develop and practice the processes of science such as observations, communication, formulation of hypotheses, experimentation, and classification. Osobonye then concluded by saying that if one was to achieve any or all of the aims of teaching science in public primary schools one has to take proper stock of laboratories and identify those factors which constitute a drawback to the use of the laboratory for the purpose it was set up and take appropriate step to correct them. Ukeje (2018) summarized these problems when he stated that in Nigerian Schools everything is in short supply: “schools are in short supply, teachers or perhaps the right caliber of teachers are in short supply, classrooms are in short supply and above all, throughout the system people with the right attitude, orientation and dedication are in extremely short supply:”

The priority of all countries, especially the developing ones, is to improve the quality of schools and the achievement of pupils since learning outcomes depend largely on the quality of education being offered. It is against this background that the study sought to investigate school facilities and achievement in Basic sciences in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The national policy on Education stipulated certain goals for public primary education. Some of those goals are;

  1. To provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background.
  2. To offer a diversified curriculum to cater to the differences in talents, opportunities, and future roles.

In Nigeria for example, the majority of the pupils in public schools perform poorly in external examinations. This situation makes it impossible the attainment of the above goals of national policy. For instance, there are many school dropouts today who can never write their names and can never enter into any public primary or fit anywhere in society. In addition, public primary schools set up preliminary programs to enable poorly performed pupils to gain admission.

All the above problems result from poor performance of pupils, which appears deep-rooted in inadequacy and or lack of facilities inherent in schools today. It is noted that an “acute shortage of teachers in the nation’s schools has been adduced as one of the reasons for the poor performance of pupils in an examination”.
It also stated that poor facilities, inadequate staffing and underfunding in public primary schools have remained

insurmountable threats to education in the country. Sequel to the above assertion, it, therefore, pre-supposes that inadequacy and/or lack of school facilities and poor utilization of available facilities must never be overlooked. The problem of this study, therefore, was to examine on the learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.

Other objectives of this study are:

  1. Ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
  2. Determine whether the extent teacher utilizes learning facilities in teaching basic science in primary schools.
  3. Determine the impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide this study.

  1. Is there is adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State?
  2. What is the extent teacher utilizes learning facilities in teaching basic science in primary schools?
  3. What are the impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The use of learning facilities has no positive impact on pupils’ academic performance in basic science.
  • Ha: The use of learning facilities has a positive impact on pupils’ academic performance in basic science.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is believed that the life wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of school facilities (in terms of quality and quantity) which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings in this research work shall assist every stakeholder (policy makers, school administrators, teachers, government and the students) in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive learning environment. First, policy makers will be well equipped with reliable and factual information which serves as an input for effective law making on issues relating to allocation of funds, timely released period and the legal framework guiding its activities. Secondly, it will provide an extensive knowledge of school facilities to the school administrators to initiate, sustain and put to use. It will afford other researchers to look into grey areas not covered in the present study and seek ways of improving over it. Furthermore, teachers as major stakeholders in the school system, who play an intermediate role, seek to work harmoniously with the school in encouraging the students to use the facilities. This could be to solve assignments, observe practical knowledge and in the acquisition of essential skills. It will also place a great burden on the government to provide adequate funding to the school system, equipped the inspectorate unit to carry out its functions effectively.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. Geographically the study will be delimited to some selected primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Learning:

Involves a change or modification in the behaviour that is a result of experience of learner.

Facilities:

Means the services provided to support activities of a learners.

Academic Performance:

Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the learning facilities and pupils’ academic performance in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is an adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, determine whether the extent teacher utilizes learning facilities in teaching basic science in primary schools, and determine the impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate availability of learning facilities in basic science in primary schools in Ikono Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
  2. The extent teacher utilizes learning facilities in teaching basic science in primary schools is low.
  3. The impact of learning facilities on pupils’ academic performance in basic science? Includes: it simulates pupils interest in learning of basic science, it provides pupils with better understanding of basic science, it improves pupils learning outcome in basic science, and it enhances pupils academic achievement in basic science.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Federal government should most importantly provide needed funding that supports state and local educational efforts and to help build and modernize learning facilities.
  2. The government and other education stakeholders should improve the quantity and quality of learning facilities and the teaching staff in secondary schools so as to improve students performance.
  3. Government should appoint school inspectors to inspect educational facilities in order to access their extent implementation, efficiency, and effectiveness with respect to students satisfactions and teachers performance.
  4. The state government should develop more useful and reliable policies for provision and distribution of learning facilities and resources in the state. They should develop incentive programs of state funding in order to assist local school systems with their maintenance tasks, and provide free textbooks for the students. Or the cost of essential textbooks should be subsidized.
  5. There should be a conductive teaching and learning environment, hence government should as a matter of urgency build more classes in secondary schools. Also there is the need to recruit more qualified teachers in all subject areas.

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