Learning Environment And Students Performance In Social Studies Among Junior Secondary School In Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State

Social Studies Project Topic

Learning Environment And Students Performance In Social Studies Among Junior Secondary School In Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State


Abstarct


This study was carried out to examine tthe impact of learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies, ascertain the factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State. determine the effect of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies, and find out the implications of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 119 respondents while 110 were received and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypotheses was tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies. Furthermore, the study showed that the factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State includes: school location, unavailability of adequate learning facilities, over-population, and students’ deviant behaviour. The study recommends that government and other education stakeholders should make concerted efforts to provide adequate classroom building and renovate the existing dilapidated structures in public secondary schools. This would help to reduce the problem of school overcrowding and it would go a long way to create enabling teaching and learning environment. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the building block upon which every society’s foundation is laid. There is no education without teaching and learning experiences which in a formal setting takes place in a classroom under the supervision of a trained teacher that ensures that the learning environment is conducive. This is in agreement with a Global Monitoring Report on Education for All (2012), that learners in supportive environments have high levels of self-efficacy and self-motivation and use learning as a primary transformative force. In a quote from that Report “Welcoming the learner –child, youth or adult– in an environment where they can feel safe and nurtured for is very important for the development of each individual and the society as a whole.

Thus, learning environment has also been emphasized as an essential requirement for smooth teaching and learning process to take place (National Teachers‟ Institute, NTI 2008). This is because students‟ study habits are to a large extent tied to it. A good learning environment presents learning as a lifelong enterprise and enables students to discover appropriate value system that can be their compass for self-awareness and national consciousness. The study conducted by Akhtar (2010) on public school in Islamabad Pakistan revealed that teaching through technology based learning environment enhanced the achievement level of the students.

However, the societal expectation of quality outputs from the training institution makes students the primary focus of attention in any instructional programme, and the better the learning environment (school), the better it can meet the goals of education and the society in general. Such goals include equipping students with desirable skills, knowledge and attitudes that will enable them to work and live in the society of knowledge (National Policy on Education, 2004). Teachers are expected to make teaching the learners‟ cantered and create enabling environment for students to interact with learning materials in order to concretize their knowledge and skills so that they can become self-confident and self-reliant, and contribute meaningfully to the socio-economic development of the society.

There is a general believe that the condition of school‟s learning environment including infrastructure has an important impact on teachers‟ effectiveness and students‟ academic performance. The facilities that are needed to facilitate effective teaching and learning in an educational institution include the classrooms, offices, laboratories, conveniences and other buildings as well as furniture items and sporting equipment. Comfortable classroom temperature and smaller classes enhance teachers‟ effectiveness and provide opportunities for students to receive more individual attention, ask more questions, participate more fully in discussions, reduce discipline problems and perform better than students in schools with substandard buildings by several percentage points (Earthen, 2002). According to Mitchell (2008) the environment in which you study can have a big effect on how efficient your study time is. He identified noise, interruptions, lighting, temperature, neatness, comfort, instructional materials, facilities such buildings and equipment to have potential effect on study habits.

Therefore, the researcher being a teacher, has been motivated to conduct this research on learning environment because of what is considered as deplorable conditions of the learning environment especially the physical aspects in spite of its unquantifiable roles in facilitating teachers‟ instructional delivery and students‟ academic performance. Thus, this study closely looked at the learning environment especially the physical facilities in Cross River State and seen its impact on the performance of students in social studies in junior secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed in the recent past that secondary schools in Nigeria are not living up to expectation in delivering quality education expected of the system. A lot of problems seem to be bedevilling the secondary school system ranging from inadequate facilities, old and dilapidated structures, inadequate instructional materials and unqualified teachers there by making the system ineffective (Wanjobi, 2011). Schools need to be effective so as to be able to deliver the good things expected of them at every point in time. School effectiveness in this context refers to the extent to which schools are able to accomplish their pre-determined objectives. School effectiveness transcends beyond students passing examinations. It also encompasses students‟ attainment in other domains of learning (the affective and the psychomotor domains) (Bandele, 2002). He further stated that, these other domains, apart from having influence on the cognitive achievement, also make the beneficiaries of the education system live a fulfilled life and contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. However, it has indeed, been observed today that there is persistent poor performance of students in both internal and external examinations. Researchers such as Yusuf (2002) and Adeyemi (2008) have all shown in their various studies that the extent of poor performance of students in public examination has no doubt made parents lost confidence in the ability of the public schools to produce good products. Experience has shown that there is a high rate of indiscipline in secondary schools. It has also been observed that lateness to school, absence from school, noise-making, quarrelling, rudeness to school authority, deliberate physical harm to others, forgery, cheating in examination and a host of others, are daily happenings in our secondary Schools. All these tend to make the schools ineffective. According to Oladele (2003) the evidence of students‟ moral paucity are more conspicuously seen as high crime in the society and that of the institutions of learning. He further posited that the root cause of these moral laxities translating in higher crime waves is traceable to the non-teaching of ethics, when the students are at the primary schools. Adewuyi (2002) submitted that conducive learning environment can have effect on both the attitudes and achievement of students. He further added that a positive learning environment is found to be a very important factor of school effectiveness. Therefore, it is against this background information that the researcher examined the Impact of learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies.
  2. Ascertain the factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State.
  3. Determine the effect of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies.
  4. Find out the implications of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Is there a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies?
  2. What are the factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State?
  3. What is the effect of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies?
  4. What are the implications of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies.
  • Ha: There is no significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Over the years, environment of Nigerian secondary schools have suffered neglect in consideration of issues of renovating dilapidated classrooms, construction of new classroom buildings and provisions of other necessary facilities. This is obvious in the way that students in some secondary schools are learning in dilapidated classrooms or under the tress with little or no seats, no instructional facilities with unqualified teachers among others.

Therefore, this study will be of great importance in providing relevant information that can be used by government at whatever level (federal, state and local) who is seen as the principal actor in terms of educational development in the society to provide adequate facilities and maintenance strategies in secondary schools. Secondly, findings of this study will be of relevance to students because it will provide insight into the problems whose solutions might help in taking specific actions which will efficiently and effectively address the poor performance of students as a result of poor nature of our secondary schools in Nigeria today.

Again, findings of this study are of relevant to teachers who are the principal agents of curriculum implementation because it provides recommendations that would help them to make appropriate utilization of learning environment to create conducive atmosphere that would enhance effective teaching and learning. It is a fact that people work better in places where they feel comfortable and it is believed that the results of this work offered recommendations on how to better up poor conditions of schools thereby creating enabling environment for teachers‟ job satisfaction which no doubt will have positive effect on students‟ learning outcome. The work is of great advantage to non-governmental organization such as United Nation Children and Education Fund (UNICEF), United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and other related agencies to see the poor conditions of secondary schools in Nigeria and intervene where necessary. Also, in a situation where government has been incurring a lot of expenditure in her budget in order to enhance educational programmes for individual and national development and for the attainment of educational goals in general. But, only to discover that her efforts have not been yielding the desired results. This kind of situation is usually not a healthy one hence calls for immediate solutions of which the results of these findings might be of help to government to compare its allocation of resources to education and what is obtainable in reality and adjust where necessary. The work made recommendations that would help school heads (principals) on how to maintain facilities of learning environment appropriately in order to create enabling and friendly environment for the purpose of enhancing learning process and realization of educational objectives.

Curriculum developers and school plant planners would hopefully benefit from the outcome of the findings of this study because both the school plant planners and the curriculum developers need information about the current state of learning environment especially the physical aspects either for the purpose of developing new school buildings or for reviewing or developing a new curriculum. However, it is essential to take into consideration the available instructional materials, facilities and equipment of the physical learning environment before reviewing or developing a new curriculum.

The study also added to the body of literature on learning environment and students‟ academic performance which would serve as a source of reference for people who will conduct research in related areas.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of learning environment and students performance in social studies among junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State. The study was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies, ascertain the factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State. determine the effect of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies, and find out the implications of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers of some selected junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government of Cross River State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. There is a significant relationship between learning environment and students academic performance in social studies.
  2. The factors associated with unconducive learning environment in junior secondary school in Ogoja Local Government Of Cross River State includes: school location, unavailability of adequate learning facilities, over-population, and students’ deviant behaviour.
  3. Unconducive learning environment has a negative effects on students academic performance in social studies.
  4. The implications of unconducive learning environment on students academic performance in social studies includes: it affects students’ concentration in the class, it affects students’ active participation in the classroom, it affects students’ interest towards learning, and it affects students’ over academic performance in secondary schools.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the conclusion drawn, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Government and other education stakeholders should make concerted efforts to provide adequate classroom building and renovate the existing dilapidated structures in public secondary schools. This would help to reduce the problem of school overcrowding and it would go a long way to create enabling teaching and learning environment.
  2. Education stakeholders should endeavour to provide adequate class furniture (chairs and lockers or desk) in public secondary schools and students should be oriented on how to maintain these facilities because most a time‟s students destroy these facilities by themselves.
  3. Small class population should be maintained in public secondary schools and the population of students admitted into public schools should depend on the available space and facilities. Because, there is need to make the number of students to be taught in the class to be moderate, so that the teacher would be able to manage the class effectively and give individual attention to students where necessary.
  4. Adequate instructional materials should be made available in public secondary schools and teachers should be encouraged to be using instructional materials in the course of presenting their lessons and they should be made to update their knowledge and skills in improvisation of instructional materials through seminars, workshops and conferences organized by government and professional bodies.

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