Learning Environment As A Predictor Of Pupils Academic Performance In Ado-Odo-Ota, Local Government, Ogun State.

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Learning Environment As A Predictor Of Pupils Academic Performance In Ado-Odo-Ota, Local Government, Ogun State.


Abstract


This study examined the relationship between learning environment as a predictor of pupilā€™s academic performance in Ado-Odo-Ota, Local Government Ogun state.

The researchers used description researchers, the method was found appropriate for the study because it involve a systematic investigation in to the relationship that exist between learning environment and pupils academic performance in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.

The researcher made use of simple random techniques to select 10 primary schools In Ado Odo Ota local Government Area of Ogun State.

One teacher are randomly selected from each of the primary schools and in all, a total 10 responded were drawn from the 10 primary schools for this study. Therefore, the instrument will be developed by the researcher.

The data Analysis are frequency count and simple percentage were used to analysis the personal information provided by respondents in analyzing the hypothesis formulated from this study analysis of vacancy was adopted.

On the basis of the research finding and discussion, the following are suggested and recommendation as step to make learning environment conducive for effective teaching and learning. The school physical environment building and school playing ground is a key factors in the overall health and safety of students, staff, and visitors, the school building and ground must be designed and maintained to be free of health and safety hazards to promote learning.

Policies must be put in place to ensure the availability of the needed facilities that can contribute to the academic performance of the pupils such as computers, textbook, enough classroom building, hostel for pupilā€™s accommodation &sports facilities e.t.c. it should not be left behind by financing them in the area of learning facilities of the pupils.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Research Questions
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope and Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Concept of learning environment
  • 2.2 Establishment of Minimum Academic Standard
  • 2.3 Pupilā€™s Academic Performance
  • 2.4 Physical Space
  • 2.5 Learning Facilities
  • 2.6 Class size
  • 2.7 Learning Location
  • 2.8 Review of Empirical Studies
  • 2.9 Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research methodology
  • 3.3 Research design
  • 3.4 Population, Sample and Sampling techniques
  • 3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.6 Procedure for data collection
  • 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques

Chapter Four:

Results

  • 4.1 Demographic Information of Respondents
  • 4.2 Answer to the Research Question
  • 4.3 Summary of findings
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Implication for the theory and Practice
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Learning environment as a predictor of pupilsā€™ academic performance has been affirmed to influence academic performance among the pupils (Lawani 2004). In view of this, pupils based factors are very important in academic ā€˜performance and achievement. Pupilā€™s academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied within different framework. Many of them have focus on parentsā€™ education, occupation or home background (like; family income, language of the home, activities of the family and work methods), while other studies looked at it from the teachersā€™ variables (such as teachersā€™ age, experience, education, gender etc) school variables (such as environment structure, buildings, location etc), pupils variables (such as attitude, self-concepts, self-esteem, study habit, interest etc) or parentsā€™ support (such as achievement, motivation of words, parental attitudes towards education, the aspiration of parent etc)

Learning environment are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teacher and learners are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that goes on this is the essence of the school plant and facilities (Alimi 2004). Therefore, learning facilities are the space interpretation and physical expression of the school curriculum. In Nigeria at large and in Ado-odo Ota, Ogun State in particular, in primary schools, irrespective of ownership are expected to function in compliance with the achievement of the national education objectives. The learning environment, which includes the classrooms, libraries, teachersā€™ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers etc are variables that affect pupilsā€™ academic performance (Ajayi 2001, and Oluchukwu 2000).

Hence, the learning environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance pupilsā€™ academic performance. The issue of poor academic performance of pupils in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even pupils themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective co-ordination of the learning environment (Ajao 2001).

Leaning environment which includes instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation space planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teacher as well as the pupils themselves are essential in teaching ā€“ learning process (Oluchukwu 2000).

The extent to which pupils learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories (Oluchukwu 2000). It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the pupils.

Relating this study to international occurrences, are the assertions of Williams, Persuade and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly learning environment (aspect of instructional space), learning facilities (accessories) were significantly related to pupilsā€™ academic performance in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among others treatment helped to contribute to pupilsā€™ academic performance. The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, pupils and learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high level of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperature make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation system leads to poor healthy among pupils as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001 and Ostendorf 2001).

These factors can adversely affect pupilsā€™ behavior and lead to higher level of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among pupils. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frost rating behavior by pupils including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers (Oluchukwu 2000).
Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor learning environment including problems with student ā€“ teacher ratio, learning location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms and inconsistence temperature in the classroom with pupils health problems, pupils behavior and pupils achievement (Crandell&Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2011; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001; Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Turner, 2000). To complement these studies the present research examined the influence of learning environment on the academic motivation of primary school pupils in Ado-odo Ota, Ogun State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem under study has to do with an unsatisfactory condition of the educational system being operated in ā€˜Nigeria. The establishment of government schools/communities schools has resulted in a situation whereby some schools were favored in term of the provision of rich environment than other. It has been very difficult if not possible for government to standardize the learning environment. Thus the environment varies from school to school. Some schools have adequate school building good library and suitable textbooks, good administrative management, professional qualified teachers, as well as good location. While in some schools little or none of these exist. The high levels of pupilsā€™ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classroom, libraries are structurally defective. However, little is known on Learning Environment as a predictor of Pupils Academic Performance in Ado-Odo Local Government, Ota, Ogun State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the Learning Environment as a predictor of Pupils Academic Performance in Ado-Odo Local Government, Ota, Ogun State while the specific purposes area.

  1. To examine how beauty and colour learning environment predicts academic performance of pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
  2. To examine how the physical Structure and Location learning environment predict the academic performance in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
  3. To investigate the extent to which health and safety of the learning environment predict the academic performance of primary school pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.
  4. To investigate the beauty and aesthetic of the predictors of academic performance of the pupilsā€™ in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research questions for this study

  1. What is the quality of physical learning environment of nursery and primary schools in Ado Ota, Ogun State?
  2. What is the joint contribution of indices of physical learning environment (physical space, equipment, health and safety and beauty) to pupilsā€™ performance?
  3. What is the relative contributions of indices of physical environment (physical space, equipment, health and safety and beauty) to pupilsā€™ performance?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

In order to guild this study, the researcher formulated one main hypotheses and three operational hypotheses:
Main hypotheses: There is no significant relationship between learning environment as an academic of pupils in Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.

  • Ho1: There is no significant relationship between learning environment and pupilā€™s academic performance in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State.
  • Ho2: There is no significant relationship between impact of learning environment in the academic performance of pupils in public and private primary school in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area Ogun State.
  • Ho3: There is no significant relationship between learning environment and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area Ogun State.

1.6 Scope of the Study

Although, the study will examine the learning environment as a predictor of poor academic performance of Pupils in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government, Ogun State. Learning environment on academic performance among primary school pupils, however, the study will only cover and be limited to ten (10) schools in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Ten research questions were raised for the study which have four corresponding research hypotheses. The research question would be answer with mean rating while the research hypotheses would be tested with t-test.


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

School:

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of student under the direction of teachers.
Learning Environment: A schoolā€™s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding in which the learner acquires knowledge.

Academic Performance:

This refers to the outcome of the academic performance of the pupils in the school.

Primary School:

This is an educational institution where the early stage of schooling known as primary education and usually compulsory to a specified age, take place. It follows by secondary education and university [tertiary] education.


1.8 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various motivational factors that help pupils in achieving their academic goals. By so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing pupilsā€™ educational outcomes in learning environment. In Addition, the fact that this study is conducted in Public and Private schools, it stores quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In thus connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools, PTA, learning environment as it affect the academic performance of pupils in primary schools.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations on the study.

These are presented below:


5.1 Summary of Finding

The study investigated learning environment as a predictor of pupilā€™s academic performance in Ado-Ota Local government area of Ogunstate related literature to the study was reviewed and the major variables and concepts related to the study were equally discussed the study used 10 primary schools 5 public and 5 inprivate primary school in Ado-odoota local government area, Ogun state. The questionnaire were constructed and used to collect relevant data titled learning environment descriptive questionnaire (LEDQ) and pupilā€™s academic performance format (PAPF).

The research hypotheses were formulated and analysis of data was carried out using person product moment correlation statistical data method at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study are summarized as follows:


5.2 Implication for the Theory and Practice

The funding revealed several implications with regard to theory development and further study and to practical concerns. Also based on the practical implication suggestion and recommendations are offered to school administratorā€™s teachers, and educational plannersā€™ e.t.c they are summarized as follows:

It is fruitful to conceptualize learning environment from multiple perspective, including the instructional structural learning facilities & class size to study its relations with the performance of pupils. An implication to policy maker is that they should not be mainly concerned about the inputs of schooling (finance, curriculum and pupil allocation), but should also pay attentions about the internal process of the school such as instructional approaches, school structure like the building small classroom size, workshop, library, playing field recreational centre, even the location of the school which is the first should also be seen as the priority by educational planner while planning school location by sitting school in the advantageous environment with the availability of the social amenities which and bring about effective teaching and learning process with absent of noise which can serve as a barrier to effective teaching and learning within the area where school will be located.

An implication to school administrator is that the school may be related to the location of school, facilities needed in teaching and learning, small class size that is in relation to teacher and student ratio etc. school administrators have the authority to plan and implement suitable policies which can assist in the supervision and monitoring of the teachers and pupils performance in the learning environment the school administrators should also see to how the community can benefit from the school in their environment by introducing programme that their children and themselves can benefit from this is by seeking for the community interest.


5.3 Conclusion

Pertaining to the result of the finding in the selected primary schools in Ado odoota local government area, Ogun state. The result reveals that learning environment has great influence on pupilā€™s academic performance.
However, the following conclusion has been drawn from the study as a result of the researcher observation in view of these; there are some problems our public and private primary schools are facing. The learning environment is not pleasant for effective teaching and learning. There is not accessibility to social facilities, large class size with no adequate or enough learning materials for effective teaching and learning. Other factors are:

  1. Environment related factors such as class size may also have influence on the pupilā€™s academic performance when the obedient teacher ratio is high on like 90 or 110. Pupils in a single class with only one teacher the teaching will not be effective.
  2. There are not free access to computer in most of the public schools which have a serious implication on the pupilā€™s academic performance.
  3. There are not enough equipped facilities such as: computers, workshop library, buildings, internet, e.t.c on most of the public primary school which can aid their good performance academically

Moreover, the government school head master/mistress, teachers, parent and the community have a serious work to do concerning the learning process in a conducive learning environment with well-equipped facilities, small class size and good location. It will stimulate effective and efficient teaching learning condition which will bring about good academic performance.


5.4 Recommendation

On the basis of the research finding and discussion, the following are suggested and recommendation as steps to make learning environment conducive for effective teaching and learning.

The school physical environment building and school ground is a key factor in the overall health and safety of students staff, and visitors, the school building and ground must be designed and maintained to be free of health and safety hazards to promote learning.

Policies must be put in place to ensure the availability of the needed facilities that can contribute to the academic performance of the pupils such as computers, enough classroom building, hostel for pupils accommodation, workshop library, sport facilities e.t.c. it should not be left behind by financing them in the area of learning facilities (social amenities).

The government and the school board should make sure the class is less overcrowded by maintaining the official teachers-students ratio demands for the construction of more classroom and recruitment of more classroom aid recruitment of more teachers.

The school management must ensure the provision for pictures and diagram in each classes that can aid effective teaching and learning process within the learning environment.

The government, educational planner should not site schools near busy area (street) or near factories. If this is being done it will contribute to the academic performance of the pupils.


Learning Environment As A Predictor Of Pupils Academic Performance In Ado-Odo-Ota, Local Government, Ogun State.


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Frequently Asked Questions


How does learning environment affect the academic performance of students?

Results suggest that only two factors of learning environment affect the academic performance of the students: teaching methods and classroom management. The two factors are both under instruction.

What are the factors that affect studentsā€™ learning?

The learning environment, which includes the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachersā€™ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect studentsā€™ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).

What statistics are used in the study of learning environment?

Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation were used in the study. Hypothesis testing was conducted through simple correlation and regression. To obtain the effect of the predictor (i.e., learning environment) on the academic performance of the students, the study used ordinal regression.

Do school facilities affect studentsā€™ academic performance in schools?

Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (an aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were significantly related to studentsā€™ academic performance in schools.Ā 

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