Leadership Styles And Their Impact On Employee Productivity (A Case Study Of Kaduna Refinery And Petrochemical Company)
This project work is primarily covered with Leadership Style and their impact on employee productivity. A case study of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Kachia Road, Kilometer 16 Kaduna South, Kaduna. The first part of the project work introduces the reader to what extent leadership style have on employee productivity with background of the subject matter, the significant, objective and scope of the subject matter. Secondly, the researcher review the works of past writers on the subject matter, the definition of terms area covered by the study. Thirdly, it considers the method the researcher used in gathering necessary information for the study; questionnaire was employed as appropriate instrument for the study.
The researcher population was 200 individuals which consist of sales department, production department, human resource department and purchasing department staff of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Kachia Road, Kilometer 16 Kaduna south Kaduna. The researcher uses 20 people as a sample size which represent the entire population, the information gathered have also been analyzed and presented, result of data which is presented in tabular form using likert method. Discussion of result have also been emphasized to give consistency between finding and the existing knowledge. Finally, the summary, conclusion of the entire work, further gives recommendation about the findings of the research work has shown that Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company should adopt the use of effective leadership style as it is a better way of improving and increasing employee productivity in the organization.
Table Of Contents
- Approval ii
- Declaration iii
- Dedication iv
- Acknowledgement v
- Abstract vii
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 2.0 Introduction
- 2.1 Concept of Leadership
- 2.2 Leadership Styles
- 2.3 Fielders’ Situational Approach to Leadership
- 2.3.1 Harsey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
- 2.4 Factors to Consider in Selecting Leadership Style
- 2.5 Relationship between Leadership and Productivity
- 2.6 Leadership and Motivation
- 2.7 Types of Motivation
- 2.8 Leadership and Decision Making
- 2.9 Leadership and Communication
- 3.1 Area of Study
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Administration of the Data
- 3.7 Statistical Technique Used for Analyzing Data
Data Analysis and Presentation
- 4.1 Presentation of Result
Summary, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of Procedures
- 5.2 Discussion of Findings
- 5.3 Implication of Findings
- 5.4 Conclusion
- 5.5 Recommendations
- 5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of leadership in an organization can not be overemphasized. Leadership is a major element that sets successful and unsuccessful organizations and government apart. It plays central role in offering direction and purpose towards achieving goals of the organization. It is also an important element in the social relationship of groups at work. Leadership is the main factor that determines and shape group behaviour. When it is correctly applied, each employee enjoys a feeling of strong commitment towards achieving organizational goals. Regardless of equality of its members, every group will tend to have a system in which it will have a leader.
However, organizational goals can never be achieved without proper leadership style in play. It is important to note that the effective performance of an individual employee is a function of both his personal characteristics and the individual environment. A careful consideration of knowledge, skills, experience, attitude and motivation of an employee enhance maximum productivity and efficiency in the job. Since leadership deals with the human resource element, it provides the basis for effective utilization of material resources in an organization through individual skills, knowledge and ability.
Leadership can simply be defined as a process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards attainment of set goals. Leadership is the life wire of an organization. Douglas McGregor theory X and theory Y is to the view that leaders attitude towards human nature as a large influence on how that person behaves as a leader and how it affects the employee under the leader. It is however important to note that no single leadership style is likely to be effective in all circumstances, leadership style vary based on surroundings and circumstances.
However, instead of concentrating on a single leadership style, leaders can vary their approaches depending on three factors: forces in the leader, forces in the subordinate and forces in the situation. An effective leader is measured by his ability to manage and withstand forces around him and how to effectively utilize human and material resources to attain organizational objectives. Douglas McGregor put it clear that there is a close relationship between leaders’ expectation and the resulting performance of subordinates. He further explains that if leaders’ expectations are high, productivity is likely to be high.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems observed by the researcher is the inflexibility of the leadership style by most organization managers. They fail to adjust their style of leading to the changing situations and business environment. This failure is as a result of the lack of understanding of the fact that no one particular style of leadership can fit all conditions and must be flexible to give room for change.
Another problem is close to the first. Managers failure to consider the prevailing situation when leading their subordinates. They fail to allow the situation dictate the particular style of leadership to adopt.
Also is the problem of absence of an effective line of communication between the manager and their employees. The communication gap between leaders and their subordinate posses a big problem for several organization as effective leadership is predicated on communication pattern of both the managers and their subjects.
In conclusion, leaders lack managerial experience in ensuring that workers are motivated, the absence of motivation contributes to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of workers.
1.3 Objective of the Study
- To identify the different leadership styles and their relationship with employee productivity
- To determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation
- To ascertain the effects of leadership styles on employee morale
- To determine the relationship between employee productivity and placement
- To examine the significance of leadership styles on organization survival
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work is aimed at improving employee productivity through the various leadership styles. It is also aimed at highlighting the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation, the significance of leadership styles on organization survival. It will also serve as reference document to students, government, other researchers and scholars, leaders, employee by contributing towards the advancement of knowledge in management and other field. It is also a requirement in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma in Purchasing and Supply of Kaduna Polytechnic.
1.5 Research Questions
- What are the different leadership style and their relationship with employee productivity
- What are the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation
- What are the effects of leadership styles on employee morale
- What are the relationship between employee productivity and placement
- What are the significance of leadership styles on organization survival
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study centre on the concept of leadership styles and their impact on employee productivity, to identify the different leadership styles and their relationship with employee productivity, to determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation, to determine the relationship between employee productivity and placement, to ascertain the relationship between leadership styles on employee morale, to establish the impact of leadership styles on organization survival.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The process of directing and inspiring employee to perform task and oriented activities of the organization.
The various behavior patterns favoured by leaders during the process of directing and influencing employee.
The act of carrying out an action or a piece of work.
The force that influence, enthusian, direct employee energy towards the attainment of set objectives.
One who rules by his own power without seeking the opinion of his subordinate.
One who adheres to, or promote individual participation as a principle.
A leader general principle of no interference with the free action of his subordinate.
Are artificially contrived structures with procedures and objectives defining the responsibilities and highlighting who does what type of job task.
Feeling of satisfaction derived from achieving recognition and competence.
Summary, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the entire project work, brings out the findings, arrive at a conclusion and as well made recommendation to the management.
5.1 Summary of Procedures
This study is embarked to know the leadership style and their impact on employee productivity in an organization. A case study of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Kachia Road, Kilometer 16 Kaduna South, Kaduna State. The first chapter of the study include a formal introduction of the topic under consideration. It identifies specific objectives, significant of the study and question were developed to assist the researcher to study the situation and come up with possible suggestion for the study. Definition of terms used in the research were also given.
The second chapter centered on the review of previous works carried out by scholars and authors in the field of the study given definition or concept of leadership, leadership styles, fielders situational approach to leadership, factors to consider in selecting leadership styles, relationship between leadership and productivity, leadership and motivation and type of motivation were identified.
Research methodology focused on the area of study, research design, population of the study, sample and sampling procedure, instrument for data collection, administration of the data, techniques for analyzing data etc.
Lastly in chapter four, the researcher issued out 20 questionnaires out of which all were returned and this formed the basis for the presentation and analysis. The researcher administered the instrument personally to the respondents and this was done randomly among the sample size drawn from Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company located at Kachia Road, Kilometer 16 Kaduna South, Kaduna state.
5.2 Discussion of Findings
This section is to highlight the major finding during the process of conducting the research work. Five questions were formulated to guide the researcher. In research question one, leadership style affect employees productivity and the respondent indicated that it enables them to improve their productivity, helps the leader to learn new and better ways of dealing with his employee, determines the relationship between a leader and his subordinate as well as enables employee to contribute ideas to management of the organization and provide the employee the opportunities to aspire for greater height which necessitate the research question two. The findings review that impact of motivation on employee productivity is when employee are adequately motivated, they perform better, as it serves as reinforcement to them which in turn increases their commitment to work. As a result of this a research question three was fashioned out on how leadership style can boost employee morale, the respondent responded positively as lack of welfare packages and inappropriate leadership style result to low morale. It also identified that employee placement affect their productivity, since when employee are rightly placed especially through democratic or participative means, it encourages them to perform and that employee productivity is not necessary a criteria for their placement but another way of encouraging them to work. For this reason, the research question five was raised and respondent proved that leadership style is significant for organizational survival since bad leadership style is capable of being responsible for organizational failure, and that environment, workforce and nature of the organization determine the success of leadership styles.
5.3 Implication of Findings
In view of the findings of these study, the following implication can be deduced if action is taken or not.
The finding shows that leadership style affect employee productivity has greatly improved and contributed positively to organization objectives and also the impact of motivation on employee productivity cannot be overemphasized because of the complexity of the modern organization.
The findings also revealed that the placement of employee affect their productivity and it is due to the fact that employee are not rightly placed when they deserve it which might hinder them to be more productive.
Therefore, the circumstances and situation will determine the best leadership style to adopt and this can only be achieved when a leader put it into consideration before choosing a leadership style for the organization to achieve their set objectives.
Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that leaders can only adopt a leadership style depending on the situation and circumstances he/she finds himself or herself. Leaders should also take decision that will carry everyone along to achieve set goals and the communication pattern between leaders and followers should be effective that is, the type of communication pattern to be employed will depend on the type of message one wants to pass across because it is said that communication can only be effective if the receiver understands the message and the work to be done by sending feedback appropriately.
Considering the findings of this study, the researcher wish to make the following recommendation to organization and other relevant bodies who adopted the use of leadership style in their organization.
- The management of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company should adopt the use of effective leadership styles as a better way of improving and increasing employee productivity in an organization depending on the situation and circumstances.
- Leaders and organization should adequately motivate their employee in order to encourage them to perform better and improve their commitment towards achieving the organizational goals.
- Organization should try to boost employee morale by motivating them in different ways including open praise and appreciation.
- The issue of employee placement should also be looked into by leaders to encourage their employee dedicated at work especially when they deserve such placing.
- Since the significance of leadership style in an organization cannot be overemphasized, leaders should develop the ability of influencing the behaviour of their employee for the survival of the organization.
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies
The researcher could not cover a wider area relating to the topic due to the scope of the study. Therefore, the researcher suggests that further work could be conducted on: Decision Making and Communication as a Tool for Enhancing Working Relationship between a Leader and his Employee.
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