Leadership And Good Governance At The Grassroots In Nigeria

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Leadership And Good Governance At The Grassroots In Nigeria


Abstract


Governance can be perceived as a fundamental process by which the lives and dreams of people are jointly pursued through deliberate and systematic strategies and policies for the attainment of their maximum potential.one of the major challenges that have faced African states, particularly Nigeria, since the advent of political independence has been that of establishing and sustaining appropriate governance, institutions and practices that would engender democratic leadership and promote sustainable development at the grassroots levels and beyond. this study was therefore undertaken to examine leadership and good governance at the grassroots in Nigeria. the study employed the descriptive research survey design and Egbeda and Atigbo local government areas were selected as case studies. the study had a total of 133 respondents. the findings showed that there is significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels. Furthermore, there is significant relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Many forms of governance, institutions and bureaucracies that were transferred to a majority of African states at independence were, for the most part, ill-adapted to the African realities and the continent’s development challenges (Afegbua, 2012). Therefore, one of the major challenges that have faced African states and particularly Nigeria since the advent of political independence has been that of establishing and sustaining appropriate governance, institutions and practices that would engender democratic leadership and promote sustainable development at the grassroots levels and beyond (Yimer, 2015).

In Africa, in general, leadership and governance have been identified as major problems militating against growth and development in all sectors of the economy and the grassroots levels not being exempted. The need for leadership in any nation or state is very essential. This is because nations or states exist with stated ideologies and leaders are ‘machineries’ for achieving such stated ideologies. Organisational goals will remain unrealistic without a ‘designated individual’ known as leader. As a result, leaders are ‘central instruments’ to any organization. Success or failure of an organization lies in the hand of a leader (Lamidi & Adeyeye, 2013).

One of the major challenges facing Nigeria is how to create a context of stable political and socio-economic environment for policies and programmes to be implemented. The issue of getting the right leadership to fight corruption and propel good governance has been a recurring decimal in Nigeria and Africa in general. Once this enabling environment is created, it becomes easy for the people to confront and resolve challenges facing them by using resources within their environment to create a condition of life where each stage is progressively better than the preceding one. However, this is not the case in Nigeria due to corruption and bad governance. Good governance encapsulates transparency, accountability, freedom of choice and liberty for the people to pursue their individual and corporate interest. Indeed, at the core of Africa’s underdeveloped status are corruption and leadership deficit (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:42).

Leadership and good governance are crucial to realizing any giant stride taken in pursuit of development anywhere in the world, Nigeria is not an exception. The reverberation effects of the failure of leadership, corruption and bad governance are visible and being felt down to the grassroots levels of the Nigerian society. Unemployment and employment for cash, insecurity, crude oil thefts, crisis in education, dearth of infrastructures such as health services, transportation, accommodation, communication, medication etc are all common features in Nigeria. It is an irony that of all oil producing nations, Nigeria is the only country with the history of crude oil thefts (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:43).

An examination of Nigeria’s socio-economic and political history reveals that many of its leaders over the years have been using the “iron law of oligarchy” which explains the triumph of the leaders’ ambitions for office over the membership’s revolutionary goals (Olayiwola, 2013:43).

The country is confronted with a myriad of problems and challenges that are seemingly defying solutions. Indeed the Nigerian situation is a paradox. Nigeria is a nation blessed with abundant human and natural resources. Yet, 60.9 per cent or 99.3 million live in absolute poverty, and 61.2 per cent live on less than a dollar a day with grassroots dwellers almost neglected and cut off as poverty pervades in the local communities (Essoh & Udoh, 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of leadership, governance and its pervasive bearing on social cum economic development in Nigeria is multifaceted. The root cause of inequality, poverty and underdevelopment in Nigeria is attributed to bad leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character. There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land, climate, water, air, or anything else. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to their responsibility, to the challenge of personal example, which is the hallmark of true leadership (Ijewereme & Dunmade, 2014).

Developmental research indicates that Nigeria is fraught of poor leadership, bad governance, corruption and weak bureaucratic institutions. It is an axiom that since attainment of political independent, Nigeria has never been governed by selfless, truly transformational and intellectually endowed leaders. That is, Nigeria has never selected its best sons to positions of leadership and mediocre leadership can only lead to mediocre government without any serious achievement (Egbefo, 2014; Essoh & Udoh, 2014).

However, in order to curtail this menace and enhance grassroots development, the Nigeria government has taken some steps to address the twin challenges of corruption and bad governance in the country. These measures include public service reform such as monetization to reduce waste and reduction of over bloated personnel, the establishment of anti-corruption enforcement agencies such as the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), Independent Corruption and other Practices Commission (ICPC) etc. Despite the establishment of these policies and measures, the situation remains rather worrisome as poor leadership, corruption and bad governance continues to pervade every facet of the society while service delivery at the grassroots levels remains an allusion to behold (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:54).

Poor leadership and bad governance have impacted negatively on Nigeria’s democratic stability and her economic development especially at the grassroots levels. This holds to the fact that majority of elected representatives that are meant to steer the affair of the people at the grassroots levels in Nigeria are product of political corruption, they got their party tickets through political godfathers and mandate through election rigging. The implication of all these are mass poverty, unemployment and insecurity that enveloped the local communities. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to explore the relationship between leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels in Nigeria with a special reference to Ojo LGA of Lagos State (Ebegbulem, 2012).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels. While other specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the effect of leadership on good governance at grassroots levels.
  2. To identify the extent of relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.
  3. To examine the effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels?

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1:
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels.
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels.
Hypothesis 2:
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.
  • Hi: There is a significant relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Previous researchers such as Michael (201), Lamidi and Adeyeye (2013), have been very divergent in their views about the likely connectedness of the concepts of leadership and good governance, this study will therefore be of great significance as it will add to the existing scanty literature. It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and empirical studies will be a furtherance of understanding of salient issues relating to leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels in Nigeria. The study will also serve as a useful tool for students of the University of Lagos, who would want to carry out further research in this domain. It would also be useful to public administrators. The study would be significant to policy makers and implementers at large, as they will make use of the findings and recommendations of this study.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers leadership and good government at the grassroots in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Leadership:

Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to “lead” or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

Good Government:

Good government is a normative description of how government is supposed to be constituted. It has been frequently employed by various political thinkers, ideologues and politicians

Grassroots:

A grassroots movement is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots movements and organizations use collective action from the local level to effect change at the local, regional, national, or international level.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows:

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain leadership and good governance at the grassroots in Nigeria. The study selected Egbeda and Atigbo local government areas and the respondents were drew from these areas.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of leadership and good government at the grassroots in Nigeria


5.2 Summary

This study was on leadership and good governance at the grassroots in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine the effect of leadership on good governance at grassroots levels, to identify the extent of relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels, to examine the effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staffs of Egbeda and Atigbo local government areas in Oyo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection.

Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made counselors, secretaries, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The study finding shows that some LGAs have weak financial leverage and high level of uncertainty of tenure of office. Some of the challenges of grassroot democracy include the lack of constitutional provision that will guaranty local government autonomy, incessant interference in local government affairs by state government, the joint account syndrome, frequent dissolution of the local council by the state government and lack of free and fair elections at the grassroot. These challenges have undermined the ability of the local government council to deliver on their mandate especially in the provision of social services to the rural communities. This has resulted in the abysmal performance of the local government in achieving rural development in the country.


5.4 Recommendation

The Local Government areas should have a well defined tenure of office for elected officials that will be taking care of by the constitution of the country. Also, the local government elections should be conducted by the National Independent Electoral Commission (INEC). This will guaranty some form of fairness in the electoral process


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