Leadership And It’s Effects On Performance, Achievement And Goal Realization
Out of the twenty three (23) local government councils in Kaduna State none has met the expectations and aspirations of the electorate who voted them into office. Some people blamed the disappointment on the council leaders. Studies in leadership is as controversial as the concept itself. At the local government level there are numerous leaders. The Local government chairman is a leader, just as the Director of Human Resources. The Treasurer is a leader just as the Director of works. Nobody will declare the Head Driver, the Head of security, the Head Messenger etc as non-leaders. They are all leaders in their own rights.
Even if this research is concerned mainly with political leaders it may seek to find out if leaders are born or made. In other worlds, is good leadership a product of appropriate training or talent from God? For instance, is Muritala Mohammed good leadership a product of his training? Is Obafemi Awolowo’s credible leadership as premier of the defunct Western Region a reflection of his training? President Nelson Mandela spend 22 years in prison. After was this the outcome of his training while in detention?
This research will try to establish the role of fund, personnel, cooperation, fellowship and of course, leadership in the delivery of dividends of democracy at the gross roots level.
1.1 Background Of The Study
This study on the relationship between LEADERSHIP AND ITS EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE, ACHIEVEMENT AND GOAL REALIZATION is carried on at the Kaduna South Local government as a case study. There are many theories and principles on leadership styles and their application in organized private set like banking, manufacturing, industry etc. Can these also apply and work out the same way in a politically influenced and controlled like the local government particularly in a federation such as Nigeria?
In carrying out any collective task leadership is a major element which bring about either success or failure leadership plays central role in offering direction and purpose towards achieving set goals of an organization including Kaduna South Local ;government. It is also an important element in the social relationship of groups of work. Leadership is the main factor that determines and sharpens group behaviour especially when it is correctly applied. In his approach, each employee enjoys a feeling of strong commitment and dedication towards achieving organizational goals. Regardless of inequality of members of staff appropriate leadership style can serve as a maginet drawing every body to the centre there by providing a formidable workforce. As the saying goods unity is strength.
However, Kaduna South Local government goals can never be achieved without proper leadership style in place. It is important not that the effective performance of an individual employee is a function of both his personal characteristics and the individual environment. A careful consideration of knowledge, skills, experience, attitude and motivation of an employee enhance maximum productivity and efficiency in the job. Since leadership deals with the human resource element, it provides the basis for effective utilization of material resources in an organization through individual skills, know ledge and ability.
According to Merenu (1988) Leadership is the most influential person in an organization who provides direction, guides, group activities and ensure that group objectives are obtained. Leadership is the life wire of an organization. Douglas Mc Gregor theory X and theory Y is of the view that leaders, attitude towards subordinates has a large influence on how such workers behave both on the job and towards their leader. It is how ever important to note that no single leadership style is likely to be effective in all circumstances. Leadership styles vary based on social political environment and other circumstances.
Finally, an effective leader is measured by his ability to manage and withstand forces around him and how to effectively utilize human and material resources to ATTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVE. DOUGAS MCGREGOR, put it clear that there is a close relationship between leaders’ expectation and the resulting performances of the subordinates.
A pertinent question which this research seeks to answer is “can leadership style enhance or hinder the delivery of dividends of democracy at the local government level.”
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The problem identified by the researcher is the perceived poor service delivery by the various Local Government councils in Nigeria.
Many Nigerians are dissatisfied with performances of Local Governments in the country. It could be assessed that more than 80% of the 774 Local government councils in Nigeria have nothing to show for their existence in terms of executing public policies within their areas of jurisdiction, especially from 1999 to 2011. This research is therefore set out to investigate factors which are responsible for poor or low productivity in Kaduna south local government area.
Several factors are suspected to be responsible for this political factor such as shortage of fund and qualified staff, state government interference etc. however this study picked one of the factors, leadership. One thinks that of all the factors promoting high productivity or satisfactory delivery of dividends of democracy, leadership is the most important.
This is so, because, he has to combine, control and direct all other factors to achieve the set objectives. In other worlds, this work wishes to isolate concentrate on local government political leader and his administrative style with the view to identifying the degree or level of his contribution to the delivery or non-delivery of dividend of democracy from year 2000 to 2010 in Kaduna south local government area of Kaduna state.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The purpose of the study is to find out how leadership styles are being used in Kaduna South local government. In this aspect specific objectives include.
- To identify the different leadership styles and their relationship with employee productivity
- To determine the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation.
- To ascertain the effects of leadership styles on community cooperation and good will.
- To examine the contribution of leadership styles to dividend of democracy delivery.
- To investigate the contribution of leadership style to industry harmony and esprit decors in Kaduna South Local Government area.
Ho; There is no significant relationship between leadership and level of delivery of dividend of democracy at the local government level.
Hi; There is significant relationship between leadership and level of delivery of budget implementation (estimate) at the local government.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
In the words of Asika (1991).A project of this nature is to give opportunity to the local government to assess itself on their leadership style and their impact on employee productivity in its area. The research work is aimed at improving employee productivity thorough the adoption of various leadership styles.
In addition this study will also provide basis for workers to enjoy a feeling of strong commitment and dedication towards achieving dividend of democracy through close relationship between leadership expectation and the resulting performances of the workers in Kaduna South Local Government.
There study will also be of immense benefit to various stockholders in the field of leadership which includes students, government agencies, organizations and individuals by serving as point of references in the course of their study and work.
The finding will also old to the knowledge of the problems militating against local government performances including inter-government relationship that is to say the state leader (Governor) and the local government leader (Chairman).
Finally it will prove to the local government chairman that as a political leader at the grassroots level he was elected to carryout public policies at the local government at the local government level within available human and material resources.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
According to Yusuf (1996) one aspect in research study that gives beginners problems is how to decide the scope of the study.
The scope is the extent of work the research intends to carryout: that is the margin of the coverage of the research work in terms of phenomena to be examined and the number of subject required to provide useful information about object of the study.
The scope of this research is one local government out of 23 local governments in Kaduna state. The time frame covers the period 2000 to 2010. The study centers in the concept of leadership style and their impact on public service delivery. The study covers ten (10) years of democratic local government rule.
If excludes the period of military administration, but it covers political leader who were elected as well as those who were appointed as caretaker chairman by the state governor.
Since leadership also affects the happiness and morale of workers the researcher will examine the condition of service of the local government staff.
The research concentrates on political leaders with little reference to other traditional, religious, social leaders in the area of study.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
(i). Kaduna South Local Government:
The limitation of this research in the 22 local governments which are not covered in this study. The study does not cover all the years since the creation of Kaduna South Local Government.
There is inadequacy of time due to assignments and tests giving to the researcher.
There is shortage of fund because the researcher is self sponsored and after paying all other fees there is no sufficient money to finance work adequately.
It is also limited to the various local government Chairmen that have manage the affair of the Local government within the ten years under study.
1.8 Historical Background
Kaduna south local government is located in Kaduna metropolis. It was carve out of the former Kaduna Local Government in September 1991. The headquarters is in Makera. Kaduna South Local Government has fourteen (14) districts namely: Makera, Tuduwada SaboGari, Ungwan Sanusi, Mado, Kurmi Mashi, Ungwan Muazu, Kinkinan, Badiko, Kakuri Hausa, Kakuri Gwari, Bannawa, and Television.
The northern boundary is river Kaduna and the rail way line from river Kaduna to Kawo, the southern boundary is Chikun Local Government and Igabi Local Government boundary is in Rigasa.
At its inception, the local government was Sabo Kabukuk at its temporary headquarters the No: 11 Babban Dodo Street Makera. The area within the local government is administered under two area offices namely:-
- No; 1 Samaru Road and
- No; 5 Samaru Road
One of the offices accommodates the works department and health department while the other one accommodates the education department and non governmental organizations representatives. When Hon Mohammed Lawal Ibrahim was elected under the zero party he decided to affect rapid development of the permanent site of the secretariat and on the 16th July 1996 the personnel management Department moved into the building. The construction continued by Hon Garba Attahiru who succeeded him then over to Mr Edward Sawok who was a caretaker committee chairman whom under the construction went finally when the incumbent chairman in person of Hon Alh Mahmud Ilu was democratically elected them he continue until the finally completed the building. It accommodate well fence, land scoping and built a covered drainage them with the Nigeria breweries.
Makera is the industrial and commercial centre of the local government. Makera and Kakuri are likely populated areas and are inhabited by different ethic groups that is Hausa, Fulani, Gwari, Kanuri, Bajju, Jaba and Kataf, Kaninkon and Mungu.
The population of Kaduna South Local government is 373, 576 as per 1999 census figures. It has a mixture of high medium and low income citizens distributed in both the urban and rural part of the local government. Kaduna south local government operates six departments.
Each department is managed by executive supervisions known as supervisory councilor, who gives political direction to its activities of the department as well as to the Head of Department who is professional and who coordinates the activities of the department. The departments are:-
- Personnel management
- Finance and supply
- Education and social development
- Health and environmental services
- Works and Housing
- Agriculture and Natural resources.
These departments are used to carry out public policies. Therefore in the year 2003 the sum of eight hundred and ninety nine million eight hundred and forty thousand one hundred and eighty nine (899,840,189) was the amount specified in the fourth column of the schedule in respect of Kaduna South local government. The Director of personnel management is the Head of service and the administrative head of Kaduna South local government. This local government is one of the richest local government in the country with our average revenue of seven million (7000,000) a month, the recent chairman of Kaduna south local government is Mr UNANA YASHM who was appointed as caretaker by the governor of Kaduna State sir, Patrick Ibrahim Yakowa.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
According to planting partners international (2003) Leadership is a position of authority, power and influence. In other words leadership is an effective means of getting things done or achieved through people and proper management of money and other resources.
Every body uses the world leader in every day interaction to show position or authority how ever Akapan (1982) put it more specific that a leader is an individual either male or female who wields much influence and commands the respect of other people because of the power and authority associated with his or her position in the community or society.
Organization could be seen as cooperate entity which is legally recognized registered. Dictionary of political science (2006) defined organization as social systems in which power and authority flow from the top down word though a hierarchy and accountability flows from the bottom upward.
To day in Nigeria, people see political leader as a threat and opportunity that is to say it depends on the types of regime. In the worlds of Collin (2006) political leader is an individual or person who is involved in influencing public policy.
This is a very important element constituting the power of local government or the nation. According to Dictionary of political science (2006) moral can be defined as the state in which the physical and mental powers of the individuals are at their height, in which there is a moral justification for the exercise of the powers and which is conducive to best results or success.
A behaviour which should be adopted by a leader at al level of government to coordinate their activities. Adamolekun (2002) says leadership style refers to the various behavioural tendencies favoured by leaders during the process of directing and influencing employees toward attaining the local government objectives.
Today in the global world different meaning have been attributed to the word management. Nwachukwu (1988) wrote that management is an act of getting things done through others. In other words management is the coordination of all resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to achieve the organization objectives.
A concept which could be seen as the measurement or evaluation of a workers output was explained by Musa (2009) as a periodic assessment of worker strengths and weakness in specific area for development purposes.
Public policy can be referred to as government decision. Currently in Nigeria public means dividend of democracy Anifowose & Enemavo (1999) defined public policy as what ever governments choose to do or not to do.
Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
In this chapter, the researcher put together all factors that act as handicap to the Chairmen’s achievements in Kaduna South Local Government and solutions to the handicaps proffered.
It is hoped that this summary will guide the local government in adopting the most effective method for increasing productivity.
This researcher project was aimed at studying the leadership style and factors that act as handicap to the efficiency and successful running of the local government. The study covered six (6) departments in Kaduna South Local Government. Six (6) of such departments were visited during the period of this research work. During the investigation, the researcher discovered several factors that play against good efforts and hence do not give room for good result.
About 8 problems or factors were suspected to be responsible for the low performance or drawback. However, five are the weightiest, they are:
- The local government chairman’s leadership style
- Shortage of fund available to the local government
- Kaduna state government interference
- Shortage of qualified staff in the services of the local government
- Poor attitude to work by the staff of the local government
However, many Nigerians are dissatisfied with the performances of the local government in the country probably due to the local government chairman’s leadership style. It could be assessed that more than 80% of the 774 local government councils in Nigeria have nothing to show for the huge amount of money they have received over the years. The researcher is therefore investigate factors which are responsible for poor or low productivity in Kaduna South Local Government Area. Indeed, out of the five variables or factors shortage of fund has highest positive answer. Seventy-four out of 94 or 78.7% of the respondents agreed that shortage of money has significant effect on the provision of dividends of democracy at the local government level. In other words, the respondents agreed that leadership style has significant influence but that shortage of fund has a higher degree of effect on the execution of the local government budget or estimate.
For an effective leadership style to prevail the leader must understand the people he leads and what he is leading them for. The leader should participate actively in group work or to encourage the subordinates to work hard. A good leader should utilize or adopt corporate supervision.
From the foregoing, the democratic or participative style of leadership which operates open door policy is the most effective style of management as it lays emphasis on human element. This is because such a leader would secure maximum cooperation from the workers as he sees them as valuable factors of production and satisfies their needs and aspirations towards achieving results. Although there are many other leadership styles or characteristics, they are learned behaviours. Nigeria needs quality leaders today our nation lacks good quality leaders in the Senates, the House of Representative, Local Government Council and so on. Most of our congressmen and women are mainly concerned about themselves, these political leaders are expected to maintain a high morale standard in public service as true servants of the people.
Nigerians love and adore responsible and responsive leaders. So any leader who works for the betterment of the voters become a hero. For instance the leadership style of the Governor Raji Babatunde (SAN). Likewise staff of Lagos State now show greater dedication to public service. The state that was known for “area boys” is now peaceful and orderly. Success is governance is based on cooperative service. Therefore, once the leader secures the full cooperation of his work-force he will achieve well above average.
Based on the field findings this paper wishes to recommends as stated below:
- That “Democratic/Participative” leadership style is more effective than others in a given set of circumstance in improving the efficiency and dedication of the workforce.
- Adequate qualified staff, sufficient number should be employed to handle the local governments delivery of dividends of democracy like roads, primary health care, primary education etc.
- Revenue allocation formula from the federation account should be amended so that more money will be given to the local government to back up the chairman’s good leadership style.
- Some workers should be sponsored for further training and re-training particularly in higher institutions of learning.
- As a matter of fact, the general welfare of staff should be looked into with a view at finding lasting solution to such included are decent and comfortable accommodation and free medical care.
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