Lagos Resident’s Assessment Of Coca Cola And Pepsi’s Engagement Of Public Relations As A Tool For Enhancing Their Corporate Image

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Lagos Resident’s Assessment Of Coca Cola And Pepsi’s Engagement Of Public Relations As A Tool For Enhancing Their Corporate Image


Abstract


This study tried to identify the impact of public relations strategies of Coca-Cola and Pepsi companies to attract their Customers and maintain a good corporate image. Nowadays, economies are becoming more entwined than ever, any possible method that can be used in supporting the building of global brands is appealing. The characterization of the soft-drink industry for decades has intense rivalry between Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Coca-Cola Company ruled the soft-drink market all through the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s in this chess game of big firms. Moreover, the history of Coca cola and Pespsi also received due explanation to make the study more understandable. To make the research workable, the researcher used survey method in collecting the data. This is so because considering the nature of the research population and the kind of data needed by the researcher. The researcher further adhered to summarize, conclude and put forward recommendations which hopefully will go a long way in charging the perspective of people in Lagos regarding the Pepsi and Coca cola.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Coca Cola: A Brief History and Description
  • 2.2 Coca Cola’s PR Strategy
  • 2.3 Effectiveness of Coca Cola’s PR Compared to Pepsico
  • 2.5 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.6 Corporate Image
  • 2.7 Review of Relevant Literature

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
  • 3.7 Data Gathering Procedure
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings

  • 4.1 Demographics Data of Respondents
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3 Testing of Hypothesis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusions
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

In any organization the need to maintain the image of the organization is in our contemporary society a favorite one; hence this study surveys the role of public relations in enhancing the corporate image of Coca cola and Pepsi as assessed by Lagos state residents. It will also identified his various customers. It will also identified the total number of people and customers that have been satisfied or dissatisfied by the organization. The study will also x – ray how a PR practitioner have helped or will help to coordinate the organization and its various customers. If the customers perception and the companies image when determined is bad, then the researcher could be in a better position to advise and make necessary recommendations in the organization to enhance its image. And also to contribute to the knowledge of mass communications and indeed to the knowledge of generating Nigeria in their quiet further effect of consumers satisfaction on government parastatals. The companies is of public interest and business enterprise and has such as required to succeed through the help of public relations activities.

Corporate image is closely related to brand equity. In general, corporate image is considered an asset which gives the organization a chance to differentiate itself aiming to maximize their market share, profits, attracting new customers, retaining existing ones, neutralizing the competitors’ actions and above all their success and survival in the market (Bravo et al., 2009; Sarstedt et al., 2012).

One of the greatest challenges facing firms today is how to gain an advantage over competitors in satisfying customer needs. This is being driven primarily by more demanding customers (Herington, Johnson and Scott, 2006). Attracting new customers remains an important marketing management task. However, today’s companies must also focus on retaining current customers and building profitable, long-term relationships with them. The key to customer retention is superior customer value and satisfaction (Khodarahmi, 2009). Loyal customers are more likely repurchase the same service or brand, provide positive word-of-mouth and be willing to pay a premium price (Kwon and Lennon, 2009).

Modern organisations are increasingly becoming customer-oriented and are embracing marketing initiatives that seek to understand, attract, retain and build intimate long term relationship with profitable customers (Kotler, 2006). Customer-centric business organizations are interested not just in getting new customers but more importantly, retaining existing customers through customer satisfaction and loyalty. Competition in many service industry contexts forces firms to move beyond competing based on cost, to competing based on superior quality that satisfies and exceeds customer requirements (Lovelock & Witz, 2007). The thought of public relations as the management of the relationship between an organisation and its key publics has found enough explanation in public relations text and in the scholarly literature of the discipline. In the relationship management perspective, public relations is seen as an organisational function whose primary focus is to initiate, develop and maintain relationship between an organisation and its key publics (Amponsah, Asamoah and Isaac, 2015).

In recent years, the contemporary customer is always changing and looking for alternatives therefore, it is necessary to consider the importance of and satisfying the customer. Public relations help with identifying and communicating with the customer, processes referred to as customer relations management (Emerson, 2007). Another period of customer relations management is providing customer pleasure that is important for gaining and holding the customer and that, public relations provide direct and indirect support to provide customer pleasure. Public relations have various works for holding a good reputation in the customer’s mind and improving the relationship that exist between the organization and its customers (Amponsah, Asamoah and Isaac, 2015).

Through effective public relations, an organization will be able to win public acceptance. Effective coordination of activities will be needed to achieve these goals and objectives. Public relations, which is a management function becomes handy in facilitating effective communication of organizational goals and objectives. The public relations department in any human organization handles various activities, which include: conflict resolution or crisis management, internal or employee relations, community relations, promotions, media relations, environmental scanning and sponsorship programmes (Asemah, 2009). Therefore, it is on this premises this study intend to out into the impact of public relations in building corporate image.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Corporate companies have been embarking on Public Relations to create and maintain a mutual understanding with their publics. Corporate image or customer satisfaction is the single most important issue affecting organizational survival. The problem is that most past studies or researchers focus on either public relations and corporate image or public relations and customers’ satisfaction. corporate image are separate entity which needs to be discussed and deals with.

Hence, this study is set to find out the impact of public relations in building effective corporate image, using Coca cola and Pepsi, Lagos as a study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To assess how public relations helps in creating a mutual understanding between a corporate organization and the public.
  2. To find out the impact of public relations in shaping the corporate image of Coca cola in Lagos.
  3. To find out the impact of public relations in shaping the corporate image of Pepsi in Lagos
  4. To examine the difference in the way Pepsi and Coca cola engage in public relations.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How does public relations help in creating a mutual understanding between a corporate organization and the public?
  2. What is the impact of public relations in shaping the corporate image of Coca cola in Lagos?
  3. What is the impact of public relations in shaping the corporate image of Pepsi in Lagos?
  4. What are the differences in the way Pepsi and Coca cola engage in public relations?

1.5 Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between public relations and corporate image.

H1: There is significant relationship between public relations and corporate image.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This research study will be useful to any Corporate organization, the students and it will also be of immense benefits to any researcher.

To the Corporate Organisation:

This research will enable them know how to use public relations effectively in building a corporate image.

To the Students:

This research will broaden their mind on the impact of public relations in building corporate image.

To Researcher:

This research will serve as a foundation for any research work similar to this further help them know the relevance of public relations in building corporate image.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study would cover the Coca cola and Pepsi’s engagement in public relations and it’s effect on their corporate image, the research takes the opinions of Lagos residents concerning the corporate image and public relations of these companies.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Limitation of the study is time constraint, period in which the researcher would be conducting research, getting information (data collection), availability of materials similar to the study, attitude of respondent before they respond to the questions and funds to finance movement from one place to another.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Public Relations:

As a way of management which functions as an evaluation of the publics’ attitude, and identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an association with the public interest. It is a planned and implemented program that requires actions, so as to earn publics’ understanding and approval.

Corporate / Company Image:

Is the perception of the company held by the public based on how they portrayed through branding, Public Relations exertions, media, stakeholders, employees and trade unions and consumer advocacy organizations. Companies invest a large part of the marketing and advertising dollars to build and maintain a positive corporate image, which is vital to the competitive status.

Communication:

Is the links which bind organizations together in order to evolve common understanding or could be described as a process of passing information and understanding to one or more person.

Corporate Organisation:

A united single group that share the same ideology and is recognised by the law.

Customer:

The term ‘customer’ is commonly used to refer to end-users of a product. Also customer is a general term referring to anybody who receives a service or product from some other person or group of people.” Generally, there are internal and external customers, where internal customers refer to the staff or employees and external customers refer to stakeholders of an organisation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study examines the assessment of coca cola and pepsi’s engagement of public relations as a tool for enhancing their corporate image by Lagos residents In Which Chapter One deals with Background to the study, Statement of the Problem, Objectives of the study, Research Questions/hypotheses, Significance of the study, Scope of the study, Limitation of the study and Operational definition of terms. Chapter Two: Theoretical framework, Review of related literature and Empirical studies of various works of scholars in the subject matter.

Chapter Three: Research methodology in which concept such as: Research design, Population of the study and Sample Size, Sampling Technique, Research Instrument, Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument, Administration of Instrument and Method of data analysis. Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Discussion of findings; Two hundred and fifty (250) responses were used in the analysis; the researcher utilized an analytic data that can make use of frequency count converted into percentage computation for easy calculation and Chi-Square statistical analysis method was employed. While Chapter Five deals Summary, Conclusions, and Recommended of the study.


5.2 Conclusions

It was discovered that public relations practice is important in a corporate organisation based on its positive role in achieving the set goal of organisation. Public relation is an effective way to win over hearts and minds of consumers’, and so stimulate sales of products and services. Public relations techniques are seen as particularly useful in changing attitudes and behaviours of consumers. It is said that good public relations require communication skills, expertise in dealing with all media and the principles of persuasion, as a public relations practitioner, one should know when and what to communicate; this involves analysis, judgment, decision making power, counseling and planning. In the findings public relations activities by Coca cola builds corporate image.

That’s why it is important to continuously attract more customer attention on great possibilities of public relations strategy, whose primary role is to create positive and sustainable corporate image.

The manner of engagement of public relations by Coca cola and Pepsi is arguably the same.

Conclusively, it is imperative to note that public relations techniques are seen as particularly useful in changing attitudes and behaviours of consumers. That is public relation is one of the best way to builds corporate image.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on findings and conclusion the study recommends the following point:

Every organisation must understanding that public relations has impact organization service delivery (corporate image) were matched, this would lead to an even closer relationship between them.

To builds corporate image and customers’ satisfaction managers/organisations public relations practice must be to influences markets by sending persuasive messages to buyers and consumers about product, create high level customer satisfaction, and to provides many benefits to customers’ expectations.

Coca cola and pepsi should continue to strive higher in implementing more public relation strategy to promote their organisation set goal.

For Public Relations to contribute to the better quality of company’s communication and total business results, change of attitude with managers about public relations strategy would certainly lead to a greater achievement of the organization.


Lagos Resident’s Assessment Of Coca Cola And Pepsi’s Engagement Of Public Relations As A Tool For Enhancing Their Corporate Image


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