Knowledge, Attitude And Perceptions Of Students Of Business Studies Trainee-Teachers And Classroom Conduct In Nigeria
The core mandate of this study was to examine knowledge, attitude and perceptions of students of business studies trainee-teachers and classroom conduct in nigeria. Three research questions were raised to guide the study; while three research hypotheses were also developed and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a descriptive research survey method. The total population of the study was 5,725 which consists of 5,522 Junior Secondary School (JSS2) students in Port-Harcourt Secondary Schools and 203 level four (4) hundred students of Business Education department, Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt. A sample size of 509 was drawn using simple random sampling technique. Taro Yamene formular was used to derive the sample size. The instrument for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers and validated by the research supervisor. The questionnaire instrument was entitled: knowledge, attitude and perceptions of students of business studies trainee-teachers and classroom conduct in nigeria. Two separate questionnaire instruments were developed and administered directly by the researchers to two distinct sets of respondents: the secondary school students in Port-Harcourt and Business Studies Trainee teachers in Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt. The two questionnaire instruments contain 29 items in a whole. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to analyze the research questions, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses. With a grand mean of 2.28, the study revealed that secondary school students have a positive perception of business studies trainee teachers. It was also discovered that for the business studies trainee teachers to influence the perception of secondary school students towards them, they need to provide proper and adequate information about themselves to the students at their first day in class. The test of research hypothesis 1 revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean response of the male and female secondary school students on their perception of business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the way the secondary school students in Port-Harcourt Secondary Schools perceive Business Studies Trainee Teachers are responsible for their classroom conduct. It was recommended that school administrators and their academic staff should always treat the business studies trainee teachers with maximum regard especially in the presence of the secondary school students so as to make the students to perceive the business studies trainee teachers in a positive perspective which in turn, influences their conduct in the classroom.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Area of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validation of Instrument
- 3.7 Administration of the Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Collection
- 3.9 Data Analysis Techniques
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Testing of Hypotheses
- 4.3 Summary of Findings
Discussion of Findings, Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
- 5.1 Discussion of Findings
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusions
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
The most pertinent priorities for the business studies trainee teachers in dealing with secondary school students’ misconduct in Port-Harcourt metropolis will be to maintain a secure and safe environment and also protect the classroom environment from threats posed by potentially dangerous troubled students. These priorities according to Amada (2010) will obviously require recognizing the warning signs of trouble and preparedness to respond appropriately and decisively. Other priorities will include maintaining a classroom atmosphere of respect and civility, avoiding being manipulated by students with unreasonable demands, responding appropriately to unfounded allegations, and protecting oneself and one’s institution from frivolous lawsuit. However, understanding how the range of students’ misconduct tends to cluster along certain distinctive, recognizable styles is empowering and helpful to the business studies student teachers (Amada, 2010).
This classroom conduct by secondary school students pertains to the particular attitude of the students towards the business studies trainee teachers, their fellow students and classroom rules. It could either be negative or positive. But irrespective of what the conduct could be, the manner with which the business studies trainee teachers handle such conduct goes a long way to contribute to what forms part of the students’ perception of them. According to Amada (2010), some of these negative students’ classroom conduct which may arise as a result of the students’ poor perception of business studies trainee teachers may include; undermining of the business studies trainee teachers’ authority, too much side attraction and distraction, spacing out or sleeping in class, frequent absence or tardiness, food and cell phone disruptions, disrespectful behaviour, plagiarism or lying (Kaizen, 2017). However, Long and Frye in Marzano, Marzano and Pickering (2003), argued that effective teachers (and business studies trainee teachers) can prevent all misconduct by keeping students interested in learning through the use of existing classroom materials and activities. The implication of this assertion is that for the business studies trainee teachers, maintaining good student classroom conduct is like surgery which requires precision – no cuts, no rambling comments and a demonstration of self discipline and good manners in the classroom. Also, the business studies student teachers need to demonstrate general understanding of business studies subject contents and one of them according to Epumepu and Igbenedion (2014) involves helping secondary school students to develop manipulative skills, inventiveness and respect for dignity of labour.
No wonder business studies is defined as a subject that prepares and arms students with knowledge aimed at creating career awareness of saleable skills that will enable them to fit into the world of work with little or no difficulty. Hence, the reason it is perceived to be part of vocational education within the entire secondary school programme across the nation. Also, it is made up of five components units namely; Typewriting, Shorthand, Book-keeping, Commerce and Office practice (Okolocha & Nwadiani, 2014). According to the Revised National Policy on Education (2004) in Okolocha and Nwadiani (2014), Business studies are classified as “practical subject”. It combines both theory and practice which makes recipients later in life to act as both employees and employers of labour. Business studies serves as an introduction to the social science subjects in the senior secondary schools. It helps students to develop manipulative skills, inventiveness and respect for dignity of labour. It develops in them the understanding and attitude needed for success to advance in their studies (Epumepu & Igbenedion, 2014).
In the same vein, a business studies trainee teacher can be considered to be a “baby teacher” who undergoes both theoretical and practical training programme in a teacher-training tertiary institution of learning so as to gain knowledge, acquire skills and form desirable attitudes. They are young teachers undergoing a teacher training programme mostly under the department of business education. Usually, they undergo a compulsory teaching practice experience where according to Georgewill (2016), they are made to apply the methods, principles, concepts, psychology and even the philosophy of education which they were taught theoretically in the classroom. In fact, teaching practice is the most vital part of student-teacher career training (Georgewill in Ohaka, 2016). This exercise makes the business studies student teachers to be exposed to the realities of teaching as it enables them to also attempt other novel methods of teaching and maintenance of good secondary school students’ classroom conduct no matter the perception the secondary school students could have of them.
This implies that, teaching practice provides the business studies student teachers some type of pre-service training which serves as an opportunity to be exposed to the realities of teaching and performance of professional activities. It also provides business studies trainee teachers the opportunity to practice the use of various disciplinary measures to regulate students’ classroom conduct. Sequel to this, business studies student teachers have been encouraged to adopt various teaching models that bring about good student classroom conduct during the practice of teaching (Ogonor & Badmus, 2016).
Notwithstanding, when talking about secondary school students’ classroom conduct, it is first imperative to consider that without order provided by effective classroom control, there will be little hope for the business studies student teachers to instruct in any consistent and effective manner. Also, some scholars argued that when business studies student teachers feel that they need to discipline students, it is often because there was a lack of procedures and routine in place (Wong & Wong in Walter & Frei, 2007). Classroom learning requires good classroom conduct and, while it may be very cumbersome, it is central to what business studies student teachers need to do.
With this perception in mind, it is contended that the greatest fear of trainee teachers across the nation is losing control of a classroom of students. These fears are well-founded, because for the majority of educators and “business studies student teachers”, this constitutes the most difficult aspect of the teaching profession they intend to venture into (Walter & Frei, 2007). Researchers Dollase and Gordon in Walter and Frei (2007) reached this conclusion when they reported that the biggest challenge that teachers face is maintaining discipline and order in their classrooms.
Thus, considering the centrality of the teaching practice programme to the student teachers’ development of professional competence, it is expected that the student teachers become more conscious of the kind of impression they create of themselves before the students in the classroom as this also contributes integrally in the students’ perceptual formation process about them which influences their classroom conduct negatively or positively as positive impression attracts positive perception. To say the least, those misconducts turns out to pose immense challenges and threats to the student teachers during teaching practice as they on their part attempt to deal with them on daily bases thereby retarding the realization of the classroom behavioral and/or instructional objectives.
Despite the above trend, it appears that some of the business studies trainee teachers have not bordered to find out how the students perceive them and whether or not such perception is what influences their conduct in the classroom. Also, in the past, several scales have been developed seeking to actually measure teachers’ perception of classroom conduct (Sun & Shek, 2012) but no studies have been out to investigate whether these classroom conduct is as a result of how the students perceive the student teachers during teaching practice especially in the business education programme. Sequel to this supposed negligence, during their teaching practice exercise, creating a good impression in order to attract a positive perception of them from the students in order to maintain better teacher-students classroom conduct, often times constituted the most significant and clear concern to some of them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
From the experiences shared at the culmination of the just concluded teaching practice programme of the Faculty of Technical and science education by the trainee teachers who taught business studies, it was observed that in some instances they wasted approximately one-half of all classroom time with some activities that seeks to maintain students’ classroom conduct other than classroom instruction. According to them, this was usually as a result of the improper conduct being exhibited by some of the students. Such misconduct includes; interfering with classroom proceedings, making irrelevant comments, causing noisy interruptions, talking out of turn, fighting in the class, physically assaulting and harassing the business studies student teacher, eating and drinking in the class, leaving the classroom without obtaining due permission from the student teacher, among others. This causes them to encounter difficulty in an attempt to manage the classroom conduct of their students which possibly crops-in as result of the students’ perception of them.
However, this improper conduct of students during classes, especially when the business studies trainee-teachers are teaching maybe traced to how these students perceive the business studies trainee-teachers. This means that, there may be a connection between how the secondary school students perceive the business studies teaching-practice students and their classroom conduct.
So, since no research, to the best knowledge of the researchers, have been carried out in Port-Harcourt to investigate how students perceive the business studies teaching practice students and the kind of influence it has on their classroom conduct, the researchers have decided to fill this gap.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Generally, the broad based objective of this research was to examine the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of students of business studies trainee-teachers and classroom conduct in Nigeria. In specific terms, the study sought to;
- To determine students’ perception towards Business Studies trainee teachers in Port- Harcourt secondary schools.
- To determine the factors that influence students’ perception of their business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools.
- To determine the possible role the business studies trainee teachers could perform in influencing the students’ perception of them.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study;
- What perceptions do secondary school students have of the Business Studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary school?
- What are the factors that influence students’ perception of business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools?
- What possible roles could the business studies trainee teachers perform in influencing the students’ perception of them?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were tested at 0.5 level of significance;
- Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the male and female secondary students on their perception of the business studies student teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools.
- Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the male and female students on the factors that influence their perception of the business studies student teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools.
- Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the male and female business studies trainee teachers on the role they can perform to influence the secondary schools students’ perception of them.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will obviously be of optimal importance and direct benefit to the following stakeholders; Business education students, Business education lecturers, Rivers State Universal Basic Education (RSUBE) Board and the management of secondary schools in Port-Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
The business education students will through the findings of this research become able to develop strategies that will help them create order and discipline in the class having discovered how the students’ perception of them could affect their classroom conduct.
Secondly, this study will put at the disposal of the business education lecturers the necessary guidance needed to help them recognize the scenarios that could cause physical risk when the student teachers are dealing with potentially dangerous students. Thereby, making them appreciate the need for the review of their course contents by way of incorporating better strategies that could allow the student teachers more instructional time and less activities that seeks to contain behavioural troubles.
Furthermore, this study will be of immense benefit to the Universal Basic Education Board (UBE) Board who are saddled with the colossal onus of supervising and regulating the activities of the registered secondary schools in Rivers State. From the results of the study, they could be a necessary consideration for an improved policy framework development and implementation for secondary schools pertaining to the teaching practice programme.
Finally, the management of the secondary schools in the Port-Harcourt Local Government Area is another group of stakeholders that will find this study beneficial. Those of the schools that are beginning to experience burnout and turnover of teaching practice student teachers as a result of difficulty usually experienced by the teaching practice student teachers as they attempt to establish and implement discipline policies on students who usually misconduct themselves in the classroom possibly because of how they perceive the student teachers.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is delimited to all the business studies student teachers that actively participated in the 2016/2017 academic session teaching practice exercise in the department of Business Education Rivers State University (RSU), Port-Harcourt and the JSS 2 students in secondary schools that admit trainee teachers from (RSU) for teaching practice programme in Port-Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers state. The study also focuses on the examination of the Port-Harcourt secondary school students’ perception of business studies student teachers and its influence on their classroom conduct.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It is one of the vocational education subjects specifically offered by the students in the Junior Secondary Schools to equip them with desirable skills, intellect and attitude requisite for a successful advancement in their prospective public and private careers.
Classroom is a room or hall of studies usually with a relatively open space within an academic environment where teaching and learning mostly occurs. In the classroom, we could have a board, chairs/desks and tables. The desks are arranged in such a way that there could be free movement of teachers and students within the isles.
Is a particular way of behaviour which could either be positive or negative in the private or public domain. It is the way one comports his/herself.
Is that impulsive and/or persuasive element, force or control that causes either a positive or negative change in behaviour, idea, desire, values or norms in an individual(s) and/or things.
Is what one feels, thinks or sees another person/thing as. It is an intentional comprehension of someone by another. It also deals with the feelings, opinions or ideas one has about another individual(s), situation and/or things. It could be subjective or objective, positive or negative and could be formed after a first meeting or after a period of time.
These are persons in Junior Secondary Schools offering Business Studies as a subject.
These are business education students in tertiary institutions who are carrying out their Teaching Practice exercise.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Discussion of Findings, Summary, Conclsions and Recommendations
This chapter contains the discussion of findings, conclusion and recommendations. The results are discussed under.
The core mandate of this empirical study was to find out the Knowledge, Attitude And Perceptions Of Students Of Business Studies Trainee-Teachers And Classroom Conduct In Nigeria. The study further discussed the Knowledge, Attitude And Perceptions secondary school students have of the business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools, the factors that influences the students’ perception of business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools and the possible roles the business studies trainee teachers could perform in influencing the students’ perception of them in Port-Harcourt secondary schools. However, based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the way the secondary school students perceive the business studies trainee teachers are responsible for their classroom conduct in Port-Harcourt secondary schools.
Sequel to the momentous role the perception of the secondary school students towards the business studies trainee teachers could play in influencing the students’ classroom conduct in Port-Harcourt secondary schools, the following are recommendable;
- The Business Education programme as one of the relevant teacher training programmes in Rivers State, should consider crafting and integrating more strategies that will enhance the classroom management styles of the business studies trainee teachers in Port-Harcourt secondary schools. This will help to further accentuate their teacher effectiveness which in turn will make them to always be in total control of the conduct of the students despite their perception towards them.
- The Business Studies trainee teachers should as a matter of utmost necessity make the students have a well developed knowledge of themselves in the areas of strengths, preferences, weakness and prejudices though such a developed self-knowledge can appear to be an uncomfortable process. This will tend to arm the students with the potential, skills and mindset of having a balanced view of others around his/her immediate environment.
- School heads cum administrators in Port-Harcourt secondary schools should establish reinforcement mechanisms as a way of rewarding positive or negative classroom conduct of the students which will help to curtail the level of the secondary school students’ misconduct in the classroom especially when the business studies trainee teachers are is in the classroom. This will serve as a serious deterrent for students who may want to subsequently misconduct themselves in the classroom.
- School administrators and their academic staff should always treat the business studies trainee teachers with maximum regard especially in the presence of the secondary school students. This will make the students to perceive the business studies trainee teachers in a positive perspective which in turn, influences their conduct in the classroom.
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List of Related Works
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the components of Business Studies in Nigeria?
It is made up of five components units namely; Typewriting, Shorthand, Book-keeping, Commerce and Office practice (Okolocha & Nwadiani, 2014). According to the Revised National Policy on Education (2004) in Okolocha and Nwadiani (2014), Business studies are classified as “practical subject”.
Why do students fail to understand business studies teachers?
That is, the students’ inability to have a real perception or understanding of the business studies student teachers may be influenced by the unreasonable distant relationship between the student and the business studies student teachers.
What is a business studies trainee teacher?
In the same vein, a business studies trainee teacher can be considered to be a “baby teacher” who undergoes both theoretical and practical training programme in a teacher-training tertiary institution of learning so as to gain knowledge, acquire skills and form desirable attitudes.
Why is teaching practice important in Business Studies?
This implies that, teaching practice provides the business studies student teachers some type of pre-service training which serves as an opportunity to be exposed to the realities of teaching and performance of professional activities.