Knowledge, Attitude And Perception Of Pregnant Mothers On Exercise During Antenatal Care
The main focus of this study was the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care in Ikwo Local Government Area. In order to successfully carry out the study, objectives and research questions with corresponding hypothesis’were1 formulated to guide the study. Literature was reviewed based on the research variables, The research instrument used in collecting data for analysis was a questionnaire which was administered on one hundred and fifty (150) pregnant mothers’ in Ikwo Local Government Area who served as sample for the study. Their responses were analyzed using frequencies, percentage and Pearson product moment correlation analysis and the following results were obtained. The result revealed that majority of the respondents 97(64.7%) asserted that they have never heard about specific exercise for pregnant mothers while 53(35.3%) said they have. Majority of the respondents 84(56%) asserted that they like antenatal exercise because it improves easy delivery during labor while 66(44%) of the respondent said no. None the less, 43(28.7%) of the respondents said yes that ignorance affect the benefit of exercise for pregnant mothers’ while 107(71.3%) said no, it doesn’t. In conclusion, The study revealed that the respondents’ knowledge of benefits of exercise was good. However despite the above, minority of the respondents still demonstrated poor knowledge and unfavorable attitude which may be due to those factors identified as hindrance to the benefit of exercise.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
In recent years, there has been a great increase of knowledge derived from scientific studies regarding physical exercise during pregnancy (Mason et al, 2010). This reflects the need to clarify their effects for mother and fetus, as some women of childbearing age report exercising and may continue their exercise practice during pregnancy, whereas other sedentary women may start this practice only during pregnancy.
As the effects of healthy lifestyle are well known and supported by studies that show it is safe for both mother and fetus, physical exercise is recommended activity for pregnant women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all healthy pregnant women follow the American College of Sports Medicine-Centers for Disease Control and Preventions general guidelines for physical exercise by engaging in 30 min or more of moderate physical activity per day in the majority or preferably all days of the week. Women who were active before pregnancy may continue their activities, but change intensity and frequency over the course of pregnancy. Other guidelines for physical exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period have been published, such as the Canadian guidelines for exercise during pregnancy in 2003, and the recommendations of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in 2006. Some researchers argue for the necessity of incorporating strength training and muscle conditioning, revising the definition of moderate exercise, and increasing the amount of vigorous intensity exercises and weekly physical activity expenditure.
Aerobic exercise is recommended to maintain cardiovascular fitness and to help prevent chronic diseases, apart from avoiding excessive weight gain (Valim et al, 2011). They should involve large muscle groups in activities such as when walking or jogging, using stationary bicycle, treadmill, swimming, water aerobics exercises, aerobic dance, or low-impact aerobics. Regardless of the choice of activity, it is important that women find a modality of exercise to which they will adhere over the long term. Those exercises that increase the risk of falling, abdominal traumas and contacts sports should be contraindicated (Valim et al, 2011).
Recent recommendations add strength training to the routine exercise of pregnant women. They suggest that light strength training during second and third trimesters does not affect newborn size or overall health. These effects have been rarely studied, although many women looking for muscle conditioning during pregnancy think that practices such as Pilates and yoga, circuit-type resistance training, and weight training could be beneficial (Artal & O’Tolle, 2003). The possible benefits of increasing strength and stretching training are improvement in overall body strength, good posture and body core strengthening that may contribute in labor, birth, and prevent musculoskeletal discomforts. In addition, pelvic floor muscle strengthening is also an important component in pregnant women’s exercise. Routine exercise is required to reduce the prevalence of urinary incontinence. Nevertheless, there is little evidence-based literature concerning these practices, so it should be recommended to be careful when women plan to be engaged in these activities, mainly when starting only during pregnancy. Attention should also be paid in avoiding exercise in supine position during the second half of pregnancy in order to prevent hypotension and avoid the Valsalva maneuver throughout the pregnancy.
Previously, sedentary women should start with 15 min of exercise three times a week and gradually increase to 30 min four times a week at low-to moderate intensity. Active women may keep their routine exercise or perform at least moderate-to vigorous exercise four times a week in sessions of 30 min or more. Athletes or women who have higher fitness status should be evaluated individually. Some high-impact activities or sports with fall or trauma risks should be avoided, and the intensity of exercise like running should be reduced. For all, brief warm-up and cool-down periods should be incorporated to each session of exercise.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, there has been increased awareness about the benefits of exercise among pregnant women. Some clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effect of exercise on maternal outcome such as low back/pelvic pain, depression during pregnancy and postpartum, gestational weight gain and excessive weight gain, gestational diabetes and insulin resistance, urinary incontinence symptoms, cardiovascular fitness, and the impact of exercise on quality of life and health status perception, O’Tolle, (2003).
Musculoskeletal discomforts such as lower back, pelvic, and/or joint pain are common complaints during pregnancy associated with the anatomical adaptations during pregnancy and previous risks factors. However, active women were able to better handle the condition. Musculoskeletal pain can also be attenuated with physical activity in some women who present mild pelvic and lumbar discomfort. So, this study is coming at the right time to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care.
Specifically, The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the perception of pregnant women in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State on the benefits of exercise during pregnancy.
- To examine the importance and benefits of exercise among pregnant women.
- To identify the outcome of exercise among pregnant women.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the perception of pregnant women in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State on the benefits of exercise during pregnancy?
- What is the importance and benefits of exercise among pregnant women?
- What is the outcome of exercise among pregnant women?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between level of knowledge of the importance of exercise among pregnant mothers and perception of the benefits of exercise among pregnant mothers’ in Ikwo Local Government Area.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following are the significance of this study:
The result from this study will reveal the perception of pregnant women on exercise. The outcome of this study will also educate on the benefits and outcome of regular exercise by pregnant women. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. Understanding nurses’/midwives knowledge, attitudes and practices in promoting antenatal physical exercises may help the government institute interventions to increase antenatal physical exercise uptake including curriculum review for the trainers and improve infrastructure at health facilities to facilitate counselling on antenatal physical exercises (Cioffi, Schmied, Dahlen, Mills, Thornton, Duff, Cummings &Kolt, 2010; Watson, Oddie, and Constantinou, 2015). The community as whole will benefit from improved maternal outcomes as a result of increased uptake of antenatal physical exercises by pregnant mothers for example reduced caesarian sections, reduced neonatal and mortality rates. It is hoped that the results of this study will help nurses’/midwives and other healthcare providers to offer a more holistic approach to meeting unique health care needs of pregnant women (Price, Amini & Kappeler, 2012). Findings will contribute to available pool of knowledge on antenatal exercises
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will on the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care. This study will cover the views of the women of Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State on exercise among pregnant women.
1.8 Limitation of Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. While motherhood is often a positive and fulfilling experience, for too many women it is associated with suffering, ill-health and even death.
Pelvic Floor Exercises:
Pelvic floor exercises strengthen the muscles around the bladder, sexual organs, and back passage. Strengthening the pelvic floor muscles can help stop incontinence, treat prolapse, and make sexual activities better. Both men and women can benefit from doing pelvic floor exercises.
Refers to the exercises that are beneficial for the antenatal women during pregnancy such as foot exercises, abdominal exercises, pelvic floor exercises and breathing exercises.
Attitude is a state of mind involving beliefs, feelings, values, and dispositions to act in certain ways (Medical dictionary). In this study, an attitude refers to the perception or feeling of nurses’/midwives the benefit/effectiveness of antenatal exerciseand any preconceived ideas they may have towards it as measured by the scores obtained accordingto their responses to items on a rating scale.
Knowledge is defined as ‘facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject’ (Oxford dictionary). In this study ‘knowledge’ refers to how nurses’/midwives informed or understood regarding the benefit of antenatal exercise and its management as measured by scores obtained accordingto their responses to the items on a structured questionnaire.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation
This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care using pregnant mothers in Ikwo Local Government Area as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnant mothers on exercise during antenatal care using pregnant mothers in Ikwo Local Government Area as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the perception of pregnant women in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State on the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, examining the importance and benefits of exercise among pregnant women and identify the outcome of exercise among pregnant women.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are pregnant mothers in Ikwo Local Government Area as case study.
The overall finding obtained from the result revealed pregnant women knowledge based on the benefits of exercise. However, there still exist poor knowledge. This calls for intensive awareness creation on the benefits of exercises among pregnant mothers’ for these women during ANC visit. Also workshop and retraining on component of exercises should be conducted for nurses in Ikwo Local Government Area to update their knowledge and careful monitoring and supervision in order to improve on those observed weaknesses which posed as barriers to utilization of exercise among pregnant women.
The study revealed that the respondents’ knowledge of benefits of exercise was good. However despite the above, minority of the respondents still demonstrated poor knowledge and unfavorable attitude which may be due to those factors identified as hindrance to the benefit of exercise. Effort should be made to address those falls to improve their knowledge.
Considering the result of findings, it was recommended among others that:
- Women should be careful when planning to engage in these activities (exercise), mainly when starting only during pregnancy.
- Attention should also be paid in avoiding exercise in supine position during the second half of pregnancy in order to prevent hypotension and avoid the Valsalva maneuver throughout the pregnancy.
- Women should start with 15 min of exercise three times a week and gradually increase to 30 min four times a week at low-to moderate intensity.
- Active women at the Ikwo Local Government Area may keep their routine exercise or perform at least moderate-to vigorous exercise four times a week in sessions of 30 min or more.
- Nurses in the area should also include benefits of exercise in their health talks during clinic to prevent the negative perception about pregnant mothers’.
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