Knowledge, Attitude And Acceptance Of Family Planning Practice Among Married Men In Oku Clan In Uyo LGA

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Knowledge, Attitude And Acceptance Of Family Planning Practice Among Married Men In Oku Clan In Uyo LGA


Abstract


The broad objective of this study is to assess knowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men on Oku Clan In Uyo local government area.Other specific objectives includesto examineknowledge levels of married men in contraceptive use in Oku clan Uyo local government area, investigate the sources of men information about family planningIn Oku clan Uyo local government area, determine the attitude of married men towards family planning and contraceptives and determine factors influencing married men not to be fully involved in accessing family planning services. The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected one hundredand fifty (150) participant who are married men in Oku Clan In Uyo local government area..Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred and forty-one (141) were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well.The study was anchored on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by Ajzen and Fishbein (1975 & 1980) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Tpb).Findings of the study reveals that married men in Oku has low level of knowledge about family planning and contraception although methods of family planning available for men include male condom, vasectomy and traditional withdrawal method. The sources of information about family planning include; Antenatal clinic, Television/Radio, and Church. The study further reveals that factors causing negative attitude of married men in Oku Clan In Uyo local government areatowards family planning practices include; To avoid side effects, against religious belief, Desire more children and others. The study therefore recommends among other that Awareness campaigns should be carried out targeting married men on the importance of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as this could encourage them to uptake contraceptives.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Family planning among couples is a topic that is rarely talked about as the practice is less likely to be supported by the male counterpart. Family planning practices help individuals or couples to avoid unwanted pregnancies, regulate the intervals between pregnancies, control the time of birth in relation to the age of the parents and determine the number of children in the family (Reshma 2015). Though contraceptive use has increased worldwide over the last couple of years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in low resources countries is very low. An average of 25% of couples in Sub-Saharan Africa who want to space their children do not use any form of family planning method. A report from the National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS), 2012, in Nigeria indicated that while awareness of contraceptive was high, the proportion of females using any method and a modern method of contraception was 13% and 10% respectively. According to Park, (2007), the methods of modern contraceptives available at the regional and national levels include: pills, intrauterine contraceptive device, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, male and female sterilization, diaphragm, foam/jelly, lactational ammenorrhoea and emergency contraception.

Bizarrely, most men in communities world over have less involvement in issues of family planning as evidenced in a number of research that show that it is women only who visit the health facility to seek contraceptive methods to plan the size of their families. However, the ideal situation, according to Bill, Gady, Hanson, Tafer (2017) is that men’s involvement in decision about sex, contraception and child bearing strongly influences sexual and contraception behavior, significantly strengthens and reduces discord in relationships and reinforces a man’s responsibility for the children he fathers. Although the above citation explains the ideal situation and the benefits of couples’ involvement in contraceptive methods, most Nigerian men still shun accessing the service with their wives.Scientists have since discovered different methods of contraception for men. According to the New Zealand Family Planning (2015), the contraceptive methods include the implant or intra uterine device (IUD), hormonal contraceptives such as the pill and depo Provera injection, barrier methods through use of condoms and permanent contraceptive methods such as vasectomy and tubal ligation. Other methods include fertility awareness methods where people are educated on the signs of fertility and the menstrual cycle in order to help them plan or avoid pregnancy.

Contrarily, there are, however, myths and misconceptions surrounding the use and the different methods of family planning not only among women, who are most users, but also among their male counterparts. One of the misconceptions is the fear of infertility resulting from contraceptive use which is prominent. A study conducted in Tanzania (Mbeya region, Handeni and Sinyanga districts) indicated that contraceptives acceptance among men was as a result of men having knowledge and awareness of the importance of family planning as they believed larger families were more costly than smaller ones, (Sandararajan, 2019). They also believed that it was their responsibility to allow women to use family planning.But on the other hand a research conducted in Kenya reviewed that the acceptability rate was very low among men. In certain situations, married women used contraceptives secretly as their husbands were not cooperative (Matlala, 2016). Although most men in Nigeria have knowledge on family planning, a fraction of some men, particularly in Southern Nigeria region reviewed that family planning methods among women promotes promiscuity. The research reviewed that this negative attitude of menwas as result of misconception about family planning, poor knowledge on benefit of contraceptives. Against these lies the backdrop that prompted the researcher’s interest on this topic.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent times,contraception use has a wide range of benefits for men and women of reproductive age, but it is one of underutilized public interventions in Nigeria mainly because of the myths and misconceptions surrounding the use of the different methods in the study area especially among men. According to Gady, Hanson & Tafer, (2017) this is because men fall under a special category of the population that is currently underserved and inadequately targeted by reproductive health programs. Furthermore, men in most communities have the overall authority and decision making responsibility on all family matters including reproductive health, therefore involving men in family planning has been recognized as very important world over.

Intuitively, in Nigeria men have not shared equally with women the responsibility for fertility regulation and planning for a family (Ringheim, 2017). This interest stems from the widely held belief that in the patriarchal, traditional African family, the role of husbands is paramount in couples’ decisions about fertility regulation.2 Although this belief is widely supported by the research of many scholars, there are relatively few empirical studies of the family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices of African men. However, their participation is crucial as they have strong influence on women’s health, their access to health care and usage of family services (Drennan 2018). The traditional African pattern of male involvement in fertility decision-making is clearly reflected in existing studies of men’s influence over these matters in Nigeria. In a study carried out among married Nigerian students, one out of every five women who were not using a contraceptive method gave husband’s objection as the reason for nonuse.On the other hand most of these studies were conducted some time ago, and more recent research throughout Africa, particularly in Nigeria, has shown an decrease among both men and women in knowledge about, favorable attitudes toward and ever-use of contraceptive. Based on this assumption, the study attempts to evaluate knowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men on Oku Clan In Uyo local government area.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examineknowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men on Oku Clan In Uyo local government area.Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To examine knowledge levels of married men in contraceptive use In Oku clan Uyo local government area.
  2. To investigate the sources of men information about family planning In Oku clan Uyo local government area.
  3. To determine the attitude of married men towards family planning and contraceptives.
  4. To determine factors influencing married men not to be fully involved in accessing family planning services.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is knowledge levels of married men in contraceptive use in Oku clan Uyo local government area?
  2. What are the sources of men information about family planning in Oku clan Uyo local government area?
  3. What is the attitude of married men towards family planning and contraceptives?
  4. What are the factors influencing married men not to be fully involved in accessing family planning services?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: The knowledge levels of married men and attitude in contraceptive use in Oku clan Uyo local government area is low and negative.

Hi1: The knowledge levels of married men and attitude in contraceptive use in Oku clan Uyo local government area is high and positive.


1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide necessary information that will enhance activities and programs towards the practice of family planning to be appropriately conducted. Furthermore, the findings will also be relevant to those who intend to carry out a similar research topic as it has contributed to the existing literature. Finally, the research will serve as a fuel of new reasoning and further research work on knowledge, attitude and practices of women towards family planning services, and to health science students, lecturers and the general public.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine knowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men in Oku Clan in Uyo LGA. The study will further investigates the sources of men information about family planning and ascertain the factors influencing married men not to be fully involved in accessing family planning services. The study is however delimited to selected married men in Oku Clan in Uyo LGA, Akwaibom state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature related to knowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men. Thus much time and organization was spent by the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials related to the study. More so, the study is limited in scope focusing on Oku Clan in Uyo LGA, Akwaibom state.l. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other married men outside the study area which creates a research gap and give room for further studies on this topic.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects contributing to ones understanding.

Contraceptive:

Contraceptive is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ways: Preventing sperm from getting to the eggs. Types include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.

Utilization:

This is the act of using something.

Attitude:

Is positive or negative behaviour towards something.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter of the study is set aside to determine summarized the descriptive analysis done in the precious chapters. It also gives the conclusion and makes some recommendation.

In the summary the purpose of this study was to assess knowledge attitude and acceptance of family planning practice among married men on Oku Clan In Uyo local government area. Other specific objectives includes to examine knowledge levels of married men in contraceptive use in Oku clan Uyo local government area, investigate the sources of men information about family planning in Oku clan Uyo local government area, determine the attitude of married men towards family planning and contraceptives and determine factors influencing married men not to be fully involved in accessing family planning services.

The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant who are married men in Oku Clan In Uyo local government area. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred and forty-one (141) were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).

This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well. The study was anchored on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) by Ajzen and Fishbein (1975 & 1980) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Tpb).


5.2 Conclusion

Modern family planning methods are considered a first line of defence against unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immune- deficiency virus (HIV). Importantly, the traditional African pattern of male involvement in fertility decision-making is clearly reflected in existing studies of men’s influence over these matters in Nigeria. Male contraception methods vary from clinical methods to traditional ones.

Findings of the study reveals that married men in Oku has low level of knowledge about family planning and contraception although methods of family planning available for men include male condom, vasectomy and traditional withdrawal method. The sources of information about family planning include; Antenatal clinic, Television/Radio, and Church.

The study further reveals that factors causing negative attitude of married men in Oku Clan In Uyo local government area towards family planning practices include; To avoid side effects, against religious belief, Desire more children and others.


5.3 Recommendation

From the result of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. There is a need for government and non-governmental agencies to keep health care providers updated in the trend of modern contraceptives available through in-service training and workshops targeted at improving knowledge on the various types and functions of modern contraceptive methods.
  2. Also, health care providers should be enlightened on the importance of providing Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) as the best contraceptive. method for male as stated in the WHO medical eligibility criteria.
  3. Awareness campaigns should be carried out targeting married men on the importance of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as this could encourage them to uptake contraceptives.
  4. To improve married men reproductive health, it is recommended that access to a comprehensive range of a friendly information, counselling and behaviour change communication in order to foster the adoption of healthy sexual behaviour and enable them take control of their health is provided.
  5. There is a need for the introduction of evidence based guidelines regarding the available contraceptive services for married men to assist the HCPs with different choices.
  6. Health care providers should properly explicate the side effects of family planning to women to enable them make take proper decision that would help them and their family at large
  7. Religious and social leaders should properly educate their subjects to see the danger associated with producing children that you cannot carter for.

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