Knowledge And Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Commercial Sex Workers

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge And Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Commercial Sex Workers


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. Specifically the study was set to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State; ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the cause of urinary tract infection; ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the factors associated with urinary tract infection; and ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 80 respondents and 77 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State include; poor personal hygiene, penetrative sex, oral sex, use of contraceptives, menopause, and the close proximity of the female urethra to the anus. However the respondents do not have adequate knowledge of the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. Therefore, it is recommended that it is important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as the management involves drug therapy and patients education. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Urinary System
  • 2.2 Overview on Urinary Tract Infection
  • 2.3 Classification of UTI
  • 2.4 Frequently Isolated Causative Organisms
  • 2.5 Risk Factors Associated With UTI
  • 2.6 Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.
  • 2.8 Diagnosis
  • 2.9 Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared to Urinary Tract Infections.
  • 2.10 Complications Associated With Urinary Tract Infections
  • 2.11 Treatment and Management of Urinary Tract Infections
  • 2.12 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a pathogenic invasion of the ruthenium with resultant inflammation, encompassing a spectrum of upper and lower urinary tract disease. Infections are classified as complicated or uncomplicated, based on host anatomy and comorbidities, and range clinically from benign self-limited cystitis to urosepsis. UTI is the most common extra intestinal infectious disease entity in women worldwide, and perhaps one of the most formidable challenges in clinical practice given its high prevalence, frequent recurrence, myriad associated morbidities, and rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance. Achieving timely symptoms relief and infection control is often preventing morbidity, growth of resistant organisms, and recurrent infections are often difficult. The management of community-acquired UTI is plagued by a dearth of dependable culture data, accessible and updated local antimicrobial resistance patterns, and clear guidelines for treatment and prevention of recurrent UTI, as well as identification patterns of infection that warrant additional evaluation.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infection according to National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital(2016). Usually, the infection affect otherwise healthy person of any age most of this people are treated as outpatient. Untreated urinary tract infection (UTI) can have a devastating consequence on health.

Nevertheless it is difficult to accurately access the incidence of (UTI’s) because the situation is further complicated by the fact that accurate diagnosis depends on both the presence of symptom and positive in a urine culture. Women are significantly more likely to experience urinary tract infection (UTI) than men. Because nearly 1 in 3 women will have at least 1 episode of urinary tract (UTI) requiring anti-microbial therapy by age of 24 years almost half of all women will experience urinary tract infection during their life time. The urinary tract is a body drainage system for removing wastes and extra water which include two kidneys, two ureters a bladder and a urethra(Anderson, et al 2004).

According to Nicole et al (2001). The urinary tract infection can be define as the inflammation of the urinary tract due to infection by bacterial or virus that can extend from one urinary tract organ to the other. There is likelihood of more than one organ in the urinary organs to be affected at times and they are cause by micro organism which are too small to be seen with the necked eye which include fungi, virus, and bacteria. Bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection under normal circumstance bacteria that enters the body or the urinary tract are rapidly removed by the body before they cause symptoms.

However, sometimes the bacteria overcome the body defenses and cause infection in the urethra called Urethritis, a bladder is called cystitis. Bacteria may travel up to the ureter to multiply and infects the kidney. The kidney infection is known as pyelonephritsi.

Another cause for urinary tract infection is E.Coli. it causes 80% of urinary tract infection with staphylococcus being the cause in 5-10% rarely to be due to viral or fungal infections. With the aforementioned urinary tract infection is the second most common types of infection in the body occurring for about 8.1million visit to the health care provider each year. Schaeffer et al (1999).

Urinary tract infection is a specific term used to denote anatomic site of infection, commonly the site is indicated as lower urinary or upper urinary tract infection. The infection of the lower urinary tract is known as simple cystitis (bladder infection) this may include painful urination or urge to urinate due to prostrate or epididymis (prostrate or epididymilitis) in men. While in a women there may be vaginal discharge and significant pain. The symptoms vary from mild to severe.

The upper tract infection is known as pyelonephritis (kidney infection) the infection include perinephric assess and internal abscess which may come with fever or flank pain, the upper tract infection are serious and difficult to eradicate than lower tract infection. They can be categorize as uncomplicated urinary tract infections and cystitis in patients who have no congenital or acquire structural abnormalities or neurologic dysfunctions including any UTI in pregnant woman are complicated.

This is cause by different micro-organism that can affect the urinary tract, must organism agent may be bacteria, viruses or fungi, escherichiacoli causes approximately 80% of acute infection in patient without urologic abnormalities or calculi. Other gram-negative rods especially proteus and kleblella and occasionally enterobacter account for a smaller proportion of uncomplicated infection. This organism increasing the recurrent of the infection and associated urologic, calculi or obstruction they play a major role in nosomial catheter associated infection. Scholes (2000). Some women have three or more urinary tract infection in years while men are less likely than women to have a first urinary tract infection. But once a man has a urinary tract infection is likely to have another because bacteria can hide deep inside prostate tissue. Anyone who has diabetes or spinal cord injuries is at risk for urinary tract because of chronic use of catheter and in part because of voiding dysfunction.

Most urinary tract infection are serious problems such as chronic kidney infection that reoccur or last a long time can cause permanent damage to kidney including kidney malfunction kidney scar and acute kidney infection which can be life threatening especially if the bacteria enter into the blood stream. A number of measure have been confirmed to effect urinary tract infection frequency, including urinating immediately after intercourse, condoms type of underwear used, personal hygiene method used after defecating or weather the person typically bathes or showers, this may help the person in preventing the recurrent of urinary tracts infection including drinking lots of fluid can flush bacteria from the system (water is the best). Mazzulli, (2002).

Therefore due to the aforementioned incidence of urinary tract infection that are on increase prompted the researcher to embarked on a study to ascertain the causes, effect and preventing of urinary tract infections.


1.2 Statement of Problem

With the rapidly growing economy, urinary tract infections has become a major problem in the world at large and Nigeria in particular causing serious health issues and health care expenditure. Despite being an infection that affects all ages and both genders, women are usually more susceptible. This high prevalence in women is due to factors such as poor personal hygiene, use of contraceptives, menopause and the close proximity of the female urethra to the anus. Elderly men are also at risk due to the fact that most men tend to develop prostate problems due to loss of prostate fluid. This condition usually impedes the flow of urine thus making them liable to infection.

Although, most UTIs are self-limiting, improving without treatment even when culture is positive, other poses dangerous health risk which if left untreated may tend to spread up through the ureters, into the kidneys resulting in pyelonephritis [10]. It has been estimated globally that UTIs result in as many as 8.3 million visits to outpatient clinics, 1 million visits to emergency departments, and 100,000 hospitalizations annually [13]. As stated earlier, although this infection affects both genders, women are the most vulnerable may be due to their anatomy and reproductive physiology. The prevalence also increases with advancing age, catheterization, sexual activity, menopause and prostate problems [7]. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State, specifically the study intends to:

  1. Find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.
  2. Ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the cause of urinary tract infection.
  3. Ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the factors associated with urinary tract infection.
  4. Ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Whats is extent of the prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State?
  2. Is urinary tract infection among sex workers mostly caused by bacteria infection?
  3. What are the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State?
    1. Poor personal hygiene
    2. Penetrative sex
    3. Oral sex
    4. Use of contraceptives
    5. Menopause
    6. The close proximity of the female urethra to the anus
  4. Does improved and adequate personal hygiene contribute to the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Urinary tract infection is not prevalent among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.
  • Ha: Urinary tract infection is prevalent among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide information about pathogens that cause UTI sex workers and how these microorganisms can be treated. It will be a bold step towards the fight against UTI.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work is centered on an assessment of the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers. The study will be carried out in some selected lodge and motels in Ilorin Kwara State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Urinary tract infections

The presence of microbial pathogens in the urinary tract is known as urinary tract infection. Depending on the site of infection, UTI can be classified as cystitis when the bladder is infected, pyelonephritis when the kidney is infected and bacteriuria when the bacteria are in urine (Foxman, 2002).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State. The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State; ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the cause of urinary tract infection; ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the factors associated with urinary tract infection; and ascertain the knowledge of sex workers on the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 77 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is high prevalence of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.
  2. Urinary tract infections among sex workers is mostly caused by bacteria infection.
  3. The factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State include; poor personal hygiene, penetrative sex, oral sex, use of contraceptives, menopause, and the close proximity of the female urethra to the anus. However the respondents do not have adequate knowledge of the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.
  4. Improved and adequate personal hygiene contribute to the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among commercial sex workers in Ilorin, Kwara State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. It is important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as the management involves drug therapy and patients education.
  2. Women should be mindful of their sexual behaviors that contributes to their vulnerability to uninary track infections, this will go a long way in preventing them from being victims of this deadly infection.
  3. Health authorizes are hereby encouraged to ensure greater emphasis on the need for effective personal sanitation among women.
  4. Creation of awareness on the infection and adequate enlightenment protocols be established for the populace. Policy makers are also urged to improve on the provision of facilities and services rendered to efficiently prevent and treat victims.

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