Knowledge Of The Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Undergraduate Students In Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri

Health Education Project Material

Knowledge Of The Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Diseases Among Undergraduate Students In Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri


Abstract


This study was carried out to exaime the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. The study was carried out to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri, assess students knowledge of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri, and assess students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a somewhat high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. Furthermore, the study revealed that he level of students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors is poor. Therefore, it is recommended that health care providers, administrator, educators and student representatives come together to create a health and wellness screening program that has two primary goals. The first goal is to screen students to identify risk factors for CVD. The second goal of the program is to educate and inspire students to be more active in their health, well-being, and lifestyle choices. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disease that affects the heart and blood vessels, and include:- hypertension (high blood pressure), coronary heart disease (heart attack), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathies. (1,2)Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are any habits, behaviours, circumstances or conditions that increase an individual’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease risk factors can be divided into two groups, called: modifiable and non-modifiable. Non-modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors are those that cannot be changed. These include a person’s age, ethnicity and family history, and sex. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors are those that can be reduced or controlled with behaviour change or modification, such as; high blood pressure (BP), diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, high consumption of alcohol, poor diet, obesity or inadequate physical activity.(1, 3, 4).

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a growing problem with increasing global prevalence and one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. (5–8) In developing countries, the burden of CVD is high whilst awareness or knowledge of disease and associated risk factors is limited. Moreover, findings show that the prevalence of CVD is increasing and posing a public health challenge in developing countries. (9,10) Cardiovascular disease(CVD) is the number one cause of death among men. Fifty per cent of the deaths due to CVDs can be prevented by controlling the related risk factors. Individuals must have appropriate and adequate levels of knowledge regarding their risk status to plan appropriate interventions for controlling their risk factors and to stop the occurrence of further complications. Good knowledge about CVD risk factors among individuals will help them to be active in decreasing their risk since the majority of the risk factors are modifiable. (13–15) And patients’ perceptions of their risk for CVDs can significantly influence their decision-making process about self-management. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death globally estimated to be 17.9 million deaths in 2016, accounting to 31% of deaths in the world, of which 85% are due to myocardial infarction and stroke.[1] The number of deaths due to CVD in 2030 is projected to be 23.6 million.[2] Three fourth of the deaths due to CVD globally happens in middle-income and low-income countries.[1] Of 17 million premature deaths (deaths under 70 years of age) due to non-communicable diseases globally, 82% are in low- and middle-income countries of which 37% are due to CVD.[1]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a grouping of diseases that involves the heart and blood vessels of the body. This chronic disease involves an atherosclerotic process that begins early in life and continues to develop over many decades. Atherosclerosis is a medical condition that develops when a substance identified as plaque accumulates in and within the walls of the arteries. As plaque accumulates over time, it becomes hardened and narrows the arterial diameters making it difficult for blood to flow through the vasculature with ease, and creates a greater risk for a heart attack or stroke. The process of atherosclerosis has the potential to lead to serious medical complications including hypertension, heart attack, stroke, or even death9. For many young adults, entering tertiary institute is a critical time of transition. This period of transition can lead to adverse lifestyle patterns and risky behaviors that may progress into risk factors for chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases4. Researchers are discovering that many CVD risk factors are prevalent among healthy young college students4. However, majority of young adults do not have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with CVD. As the number of cardiovascular risk factors increases, so does the severity of asymptomatic coronary aortic atherosclerosis in young people 8. Therefore, university students may be more at risk from developing subsequent CVD than previously expected. Based on the aforementioned, the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. The other specific objectives includes:

  1. To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.
  2. Assess students knowledge of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.
  3. Assess students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will by guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri?
  2. What are the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri?
  3. What is the level of students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Students do not have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases.
  • Ha: The students have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Basically, this study will help to raise alarm on the risk factors associated with CVD, hence, increasing students awareness. The study will also help students to manage the habits they exhibit so as not be fall victim of CVD.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the prevalence of the risk factor of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in university of Benin.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. Hence, the respondents for this study will comprise of undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.


1.8 Limitation of Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cardiovascular Disease:

Any abnormal condition characterized by dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels. In the United States cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. Various forms of cardiovascular disease include atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, syphilitic endocarditis, and systemic venous hypertension (K. Anderson, Anderson, & Glanze, 1998).

Cardiovascular Risk Factors:

Cardiovascular risk factors can be classified as modifiable, non-modifiable and emerging.

Blood Pressure:

The pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart. Blood pressure is regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms of the body by the volume of the blood, the lumen of the arteries and arterioles, and the force of cardiac contraction. In the aorta and large arteries of a healthy young adult, average blood pressure is approximately 120 mmHg in systole and 80 mmHg during diastole (Goff et al., 2014).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduate students in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri. The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri, assess students knowledge of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri, and assess students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a somewhat high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases among undergraduates in Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education Owerri.
  2. The cardiovascular risk factors prevalent among students includes: hypertension, high cholesterol, high consumption of alcohol, Obesity, Smoking.
  3. The level of students knowledge of the complications of cardiovascular risk factors is poor.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Health care providers, administrator, educators and student representatives come together to create a health and wellness screening program that has two primary goals. The first goal is to screen students to identify risk factors for CVD. The second goal of the program is to educate and inspire students to be more active in their health, well-being, and lifestyle choices.
  2. Students should receive education for focusing on eating a well-balanced diet, getting adequate sleep, scheduling time for exercise and activity, and practice healthy stress management techniques while balancing academic demands.
  3. Health care professionals can help students protect and enhance their health by performing preventive screening including a blood lipid analysis and blood pressure measurements beginning at the age of 20.
  4. It is important for health care providers to be familiar with medical, community, and campus resources that may be beneficial in assisting students with specific areas of concerns. A preventive screening for CVD risk factors has the potential to educate and enable young adults to become empowered to establish healthy lifestyle patterns throughout college and adulthood.

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