Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State

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Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State


Abstract


In this study, our focus was on the knowledge and practice on the management of waterborne diseases among residents of Kofai Ward in Taraba state, Kofai ward in Taraba State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on identifying the waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State; examining the prevalence of selected water borne diseases over time in the State; identifying the factors that promote waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State and examining the effect of waterborne diseases on the population of the state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Kofai Ward in Taraba state. The study concludes that with is that current state of disease in the area may become pandemic, if provision of potable water and adequate sanitary facilities are not given serious attention.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Waterborne diseases are a major health issue, because of the burden they place on man. Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water (Wikipedia, free Online). According to this school of thought, waterborne diseases may result from bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food or the consumption of food thus affected. Thus waterborne diseases can be described as all illnesses that results from having contact with or drinking contaminated water. According to World Health Organization-WHO (2012a), 88.0% of all infectious diseases worldwide and 90.0% of all infectious diseases in developing countries are water-related.

Studies have shown that the prevalence of water borne diseases is associated with poor, unhealthy sanitary conditions and polluted environment (UNICEF, 2003; Parbio and Violeta, 2008). The United Nations International Children‘s Education Fund UNICEF- (2012) reported that, globally as at 2010 over 780million people did not have access to improved water, with 37% of them living in Sub-Saharan Africa. The same report submitted that in the same period, 2.5billion people lack access to adequate sanitation. In the same vein, Vidal (2012a) submitted further that, over 300 million Africans lacked adequate sanitary waste disposal system and clean water for drinking, cooking and washing. Indeed Jabeen, Mahmood, and Tariq (2011) opined that the second most important risk factor for poor health is lack of clean water and poor sanitation and it has major health impacts. Hunter, MacDonald and Carter (2010) also agreed that a safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible water supply is essential for good health.
Availability of both potable water and adequate sanitation has potential to prevent at least 9.1% of the global disease burden and 6.3% of all deaths (Pruss, Bos, Gore,and Bartram,2012). Potable water can impact on health by preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhea and cholera, thus preventing economic loss (Fodgen, 2009).

Irrespective of whether a disease is waterborne or not, diseases may have serious adverse effects on human society. According to Food and Agricultural Organization (2001), disease can impose limit to enjoyment of life, reduce labour productivity, reduce quantity and quality of food supply and generally retard socio-economic development of a people. There is a link between water, sanitation and disease in the human society (Lee, 2004). The inadequacy of water supply to households leads to unsanitary conditions, resulting in severe health problems (Ariyo and Jerome, 2004: WHO, 2005). Thus, it is not an understatement that waterborne diseases and the consequences are of concern to many stakeholders. Mismanagement of the environment can lead to pollution of the available resources including water, with its adverse effects.

The effects of waterborne diseases cannot be overemphasized. It can lead to deaths as evidenced in Nigeria recently when cholera outbreak killed many people in many states (Smith, 2010; Cebedo, 2010). This is similar to many developing countries of the world (Oguntoke, Aboderin and Bankole, 2009). The case is even worrisome in children less than five years and WHO (2012b) affirmed the mortality in this age group to be, a death of a child in every minute. Similarly, waterborne diseases can cause great economic loss, as a result of disability that may ensue which may in turn lead to disruptions in trade and travel (Yvan, Luby and Paquet, 2003).

A number of studies have confirmed reasons for the prevalence of waterborne diseases in the human society (USAID, 2005; WaterAid, 2009; NPC, 2009). Most of these reasons centered on inadequate potable water, ignorance and unsanitary attitude.

Waterborne diseases are mostly confined to areas with low hygienic facilities and poor drinking water sources. In many developing countries, sewages are poorly treated, most of which end up in the water systems. USAID (2005) asserted that waterborne diseases become prevalent as a result of dearth of potable water in many parts of developing countries. Potable water is not available in many rural areas of developing countries. Even in the urban areas, available potable water has remained inadequate hence; people obtain water from questionable sources (Aderibigbe, Awoyemi, Osagbemi, 2008). Furthermore, the prevalence of waterborne diseases has also been linked to climate change. According to Shuman (2010), climate is one of the several factors influencing the prevalence of infectious diseases in the human society. Precipitation may have effects on the prevalence of diseases, as increase in it may multiply the presence of these diseases, because heavy rains can contaminate water sheds by transporting human and animal feacal products into water sources (WHO, 2014). In a survey in Kwara State, National Population Commission (2009) showed that 64.6% of the population has access to improved sources of water, while 90.0% of the people do not have access to improved sanitation. This assertion has been affirmed by Adeoye, Adeolu and Ibrahim (2013) in a study of accessibly to potable water in Ilorin, Kwara State. Thus, the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 7 which lay emphasis on sanitation and quality water is at risk of not being met. Particularly, reducing to half, the population without potable water and sanitation facilities by 2015 may be faced with difficulties (WaterAid, 2009). This makes issue of waterborne diseases of grievous concern.

Despite this, a large proportion of the people still do not have access to potable water supply and thus there are indications of increase in the prevalence of various water related diseases in various locations in the State. This study is therefore centered on the Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poor sanitary practice in Nigeria due to inadequate water supply is one of the major factors responsible for prevalence of waterborne diseases. According to the United Nations Environmental Programs (UNEP) (2000), Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that may face water stress by 2025. In the same vein, Adeoye et al (2013) reported that, majority of the people collect their water from non-improved sources in the study area. Thus, the major challenge is provision of safe water and sanitation services which can reduce waterborne diseases in Taraba State.

Waterborne diseases can be a burden on human society, as it can retard the socio-economic development of people. Resources that are supposed to be deployed to the development of other sectors are diverted to solving epidemics, when there is an outbreak. Outbreak of waterborne diseases can also lead to agriculture shortfall, the effects of which may manifest in inadequate food supply and malnutrition.

Suffice to say that, the prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to a number of factors in the State. The poverty level is high, such that the disposable income cannot satisfy the need for safe water, adequate sanitation and improved standard of living.

Further worsening encouraging waterborne diseases situation in the study area is that over 52.0% of women in this state are not educated, even though the duty of sourcing water for domestics and sanitation needs in many homes in the study area lies on them.

Besides, there are other challenges that have encouraged the prevalence of these diseases in the study area. Chief among these is the problem of inadequate residential planning, which according to Olukoja, Adewusi and Ogungbenro (2013) has led to aggravation of health of the people. According to Kwara State Planning Commission (2006), majority of houses in the state were built a very long time ago and do not conform to modern safe, health and environmental requirement. Similarly, as a result of low maintenance culture, many sanitation and water facilities have broken down. For instance, Aganaba (2006) reported that of 1,851 boreholes provided by UNICEF through its Water and Sanitation Project (WATSAN) in Kwara State, 40.0% are not functioning. This is the case in developing countries where many water supply interventions do not last (Schouten and Moriarty, 2003).

The effect is that some of the existing water facilities are stretched and, eventually break down (Ajadi, 2010). Above all, most water facilities in the state are concentrated in the urban areas to the detriment of rural areas, which according to Oyebanji (2000) house large percentage of indigenes.

Although some isolated researches have been carried out on Taraba State in relation to health and water. For instance Aderibigbe et al (2008) worked on quality of water, its accessibility, adequacy and level of sanitation in the State. A multi-stage sampling method was adopted, involving 750 respondents. It was discovered that majority had no access to daily recommended water requirement of 140 litres.

The result, in terms of quality and quantity showed that the State has not met the national standard, leading to outbreak of waterborne diseases; thus the study recommended for provision of improved water. Abolarin, (1999) carried out research on Schistosomiasis . The study affirmed that, the incidence of Schistosomiasis is high among people who depend on rivers for domestic for their uses. It therefore recommended that provision of potable water for the control of not only Schistosomiasis, but other waterborne diseases.

However, there is no comprehensive work has been done on holistic nature of waterborne diseases in the State to the best knowledge of the researcher. It is an issue that worries the mind and this is the academic gap this study intends to fill. Thus, this study is aimed at the Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba Stateand this is the academic gap this study intends to fill.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to analyze the Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State.

However the objectives are:

  1. Identify the waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State.
  2. Examine the prevalence of selected water borne diseases over time in the State.
  3. Identify the factors that promote waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State.
  4. Examine the effect of waterborne diseases on the population of the state.

1.4 Research Questions

In view of the foregoing, this study seeks to answer certain pertinent questions which are

  1. What are the main waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State?
  2. Is there a prevalence of waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State?
  3. What are the environmental factors influencing the prevalence of waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State?
  4. What are the effects of waterborne diseases on the people of Kofai Ward In Taraba State?.

1.5 Null Hypotheses.

H0 I: There is no significant relationship between the mean perception of water borne diseases and demographic variables.


1.6 Significance of the Study

That waterborne disease is a cog in the wheel of progress of human society is not in doubt. It has been shown that it can retard socio-economic development of people. In the light of the above, and at the end of this study, a number of benefits will accrue from the study and some of these are highlighted:

  1. It will assist in the determination of the state of waterborne diseases infestation in the study area. Our knowledge of their prevalence will to a large extent aid the control of these diseases and necessary steps required to prevent or control them. In other words, the most common waterborne diseases in the study area can be mapped and various steps needed to stem the spread of these diseases can easily be taken. For instance, the study area is noted for certain waterborne diseases, thus the provision of potable water which is panacea for the control or total elimination of these waterborne diseases can be encouraged.
  2. Additionally, relevant education can also be introduced to aid the control of these diseases. The importance of these can go a long way in improving social economic status of the people of the study area and Nigeria at large, hence this study.
  3. It will also assist the government at all levels to re-evaluate its programmes on waterborne diseases with a view to determining whether such programmes have failed or succeeded.
  4. The relevance of evaluation in any system cannot be overemphasized. First, it allows for assessment of the financial involvement vis-à-vis the structure on ground. Second, it can also be used to suggest either continuing or discontinuing a programme aimed at solving a problem. Third, it also facilitates planning for the future. Thus, the outcome of this study can assist both the government and policy makers to look at policies that are formulated in the past in relation to waterborne diseases. This may be so in this case, as it relate to waterborne diseases, from which they can conclude whether the programme has succeeded or not.
  5. This work has the potential to help in the formulation of general health policy, especially with regards to water related diseases in Nigeria as a whole.
  6. Available studies have shown that as a result of dearth of potable water and decent sanitary system, most countries in the tropics are faced with waterborne diseases (Oguntoke et al, 2009; WaterAid, 2009; USAID, 2005). It follows therefore that knowledge that, knowledge gained in this work can form the platform upon which health policies are formulated especially in the area of provision of potable water.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The spatial coverage of the study is limited to Kofai Ward In Taraba State, Nigeria. The households were also estimated, because data were not available on each settlement that makes up the sampled settlements. The study focused specifically on issues like types of waterborne diseases, their prevalence, influencing factors, impact of these diseases on the socio-economic sector among others.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This research work is specifically on the Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Waterborne:

Carried or transmitted by water and especially by drinking water waterborne diseases

Waterborne Diseases:

Illnesses caused by micro-organisms in untreated or contaminated water.

Microorganism:

A microorganism, or microbe, is an organism of microscopic size, which may exist in its single-celled form or as a colony of cells.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge and practice on the management of waterborne diseases among residents of kofai ward in taraba state, kofai ward in taraba state as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge and practice on the management of waterborne diseases among residents of Kofai Ward in Taraba state, Kofai ward in Taraba State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on identifying the waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State; examining the prevalence of selected water borne diseases over time in the State; identifying the factors that promote waterborne diseases in Kofai Ward In Taraba State and examining the effect of waterborne diseases on the population of the state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Kofai Ward in Taraba state.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

The implication of this is that current state of disease in the area may become pandemic, if provision of potable water and adequate sanitary facilities are not given serious attention. As earlier noted in this study, there is a link between unsafe water and poor sanitation and waterborne diseases. Available water in the study is not adequate, and the few that are available are dysfunctional.

Closely related to this, are the challenges associated with waterborne diseases in the study area. For instance, socio-economic backwardness of the study area is an open secret, because most of the able hands have also been killed or incapacitated as result of the diseases. These are manifested in their inaccessibility to those things that can ward off water related diseases


5.4 Recommendation

It has been observed in this study that waterborne diseases will always available wherever there is dearth of safe water. That potable water and safe sanitary disposal system are panacea for waterborne diseases is not a farce, as its availability can mar or make any human settlement. This may not be far fetch; because self- help approach is a common practice. In the light of this, the followings are recommended:

Prioritization of Potable Water.

Provision of potable water should be prioritized at all tiers of government, through the creation water and sanitation department. The situation as it is currently can be likened to a paper tiger, as its operation is tied to many political caprices. A similar counterpart funding as being practiced in education should be replicated in provision of water at Local Government, State and Federal levels. This should not stop there; adequate utilization of such fund should be encouraged.

Efficient Socio-Economic Programmes and Adequate Health Education.

It is imperative that socio-economic programmes are pursued along education, in order to consolidate the gains that may accrue from self-help projects. If this is not done, there is tendency that the duo may not achieve the set objectives. When relevant socio-economic programmes are introduced, disposable income will surge up, from where self-help projects can used as a tool for development in the absence of government intervention. The available data, does not give true picture of the reality on ground, and larger percentage of the few available water and sanitation facilities are in the state of dysfunction. This implies that, without improvement in the availability of safe water, the state may continue to be at caprice of waterborne diseases.

Environmental Approach as a Panacea for Waterborne Diseases.

Conscious efforts should be made by all Nigerians to keep their environment clean. This may be achieved through digging of pit latrines and safeguarding of the existing water supply facilities. People should be educated on the negative implications of polluting the available rivers and streams, as they serve as sources of potable in the state. As much as possible, our rivers and streams should be harnessed for water supply, as potable water is panacea against waterborne diseases.

Early Tracking of Diseases.

The use of modern technology to track diseases should be encouraged. The approach has the advantage of enabling the stakeholders in the health sector to share information on a minute on not only waterborne diseases, but other diseases‘ outbreak.

Tracking can assist in collecting, managing, analyzing, interpreting all water related diseases. This is achievable through collaborative efforts between the Local, State and Federal Government of Nigeria.


Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State


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Knowledge And Practice On The Management Of Waterborne Diseases Among Residents Of Kofai Ward In Taraba State


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Frequently Asked Questions


How can water borne diseases be prevented?

Respondents’ preventive measures against water borne diseases From figure 9, 50% of respondents prevent water borne diseases by treating their water with chlorine before drinking, 33% prevent it by regular hand washing and 17% said water borne diseases can be prevented by eating clean food and drinking clean water.

How much do we really know about waterborne diseases?

The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate.

What are the most common waterborne diseases in Vietnam?

In comparison to the study of Noi concerning KAP of children in Vietnam, the waterborne diseases that were known by the respondents were: diarrhoea (62%), parasitic diseases (18.6%), skin diseases (17.6%), eye diseases (11%) and gynecological and obstetrical diseases (3.8%).

Do learners in the study area have sufficient knowledge about safe hygienic practices?

A determination of the level of knowledge, attitude and practices on hygiene led to the conclusion that learners in the study area have sufficient knowledge about safe hygienic practices. 

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