Knowledge Of Malnutrition Among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic In St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge Of Malnutrition Among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic In St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State


Abstract


Malnutrition is still highly prevalent among pregnant women in Uganda with 12% of them being undernourished 64% of pregnant women and 53% of lactating women being anemic and 18.6% of pregnant women and 17.3% of lactating mothers having Vitamin A deficiency. Many of the 200 million women who become pregnant each year, most of them in developing countries suffer from ongoing nutritional deficiencies, repeated infections and the long term cumulative consequences of under nutrition during their own childhood.(UNICEF, 2009). The study assessed the knowledge of malnutrition among women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State. The study employed a cross-sectional research design to collect data on factors contributing to malnutrition in pregnant mothers. A Convenient sampling method was adopted to recruit 325 mothers into this study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data and data was analyzed using SPSS16 version. The study revealed that, of the 325 pregnant mothers interviewed, 45.38% (147/325) were found to be malnourished. Lack of balanced diet [OR=3.2 (CI=1.54-6.88) P=0.002 ], Parity more than 4 [OR=2.22 (CI=1.06-4.64) P=0.035 ], Having food taboos [OR=0.17 (CI=0.05-0.52) P=0.002], Age more than 30 years [OR=26.4(CI=6.07-114.9) P=0.001],Christians [OR=0.29 (CI=0.13- 0.66) P=0.003] we found to the contributing factors to malnutrition among pregnant mothers in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State. The study found out that the prevalence of malnutrition was moderately high. Age more than 30 years, Christian faith religion, lack of a balanced diet, parity more than 4 and having food taboos were found to be the major independent variables contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending ANC in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State. Therefore, Community based nutrition and maternal health programs should be established to tackle the problem of malnutrition and poor knowledge and attitudes on maternal health in the community.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

More than half a million women die every year due to pregnancy related causes. Almost 4 million neonatal deaths are also registered of the majority of 200 million women who conceive every year, many are living in developing countries, suffer from ongoing nutritional deficiencies, repeated illnesses and long term cumulative consequences of under nutrition during their childhood. UNICEF (2009)

Malnutrition means consuming inadequate nourishing foods or taking in a particular type of food which has little or no nutritive value. It can be mild, moderate or severe malnutrition (Pelleter et al 1994). The extent and distribution of malnutrition in a given population depends on many factors ; the household economic status, knowledge and attitude, level of education and employment, literacy, child spacing, cultural and religious food customs, existence and effectiveness of nutrition programs and availability and quality of health services.

About 35%of adult women worldwide are estimated to be overweight (BMI ≥25kg/m2), a third of whom (297 million) are obese (BMI≥ 30kg/m2) WHO 2011’s data. In the European Region, the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the Region of the Americas this number exceeds 50%. Obesity in pregnancy is connected to maternal complications ranging from effects on fertility to effects on delivery and during the postpartum period, as well as many complications also affecting the unborn and newborn (Arendaset al.2008). According to Pooblan and colleagues (2008), the risk of caesarean delivery is increased by 50% in overweight women and is more than double for obese women compared to women who have a normal BMI. Many socio-demographic and lifestyle factors have been associated with the use of dietary supplements which contribute to obesity. The most typical female supplement user seems to be a well-educated woman whose diet is already close to the nutrition recommendations without supplement use (Paturiet al.2008).

In addition, greater age has also been associated with higher supplement use (Yuet al.2010). However, age and education did not differentiate among supplement users and non-users during pregnancy in a study on Finnish women (Erkkola et al 2008), whereas in Norwegian pregnant women of higher level of education (Nilsen et al.2010) and among British women higher age were associated positively with supplement use during pregnancy (Mathews et al.2010).

Conversely, low BMI and/ or short stature( height less than 145cm) are found to be common among women in low-social countries, with the highest rates formerly observed in southern and south eastern Asia, followed by sub Saharan Africa with critical rates (≥40%) in Bangladesh and Eritrea, and a serious rate (20-39%) prevalence in Chad, Cambodia, India, Ethiopia, Mali, Nepal, Madagascar and Yemen (WHO 2011), Other countries their prevalence is less (10-19%). In Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, more than 10% of women are shorter than 145cm. One of the factors contributing to short stature is lack of nutritional knowledge, dietary restriction and food taboos. According to Gillett (2009), the major problem with food taboos is preventing a pregnant mother from accessing a well-balanced diet in the belief that transgression of those taboos may harm the mother and baby. Consequently, any miscarriage, complications during childbirth or baby being born with certain abnormalities are often believed to be caused by the mother, who may have eaten certain foods not allowed in pregnancy. Several studies have shown that educational intervention not only increases knowledge about a proper diet in pregnancy (Rao, et al., 2008), but also are positively correlated with good eating habits (Kim, et al., 2009). In addition, Liu, et al. (2009) observed that educational intervention enables women to change unhealthy practices and consequently decreases prevalence of postpartum complications.

Also data from WHO 2011 suggests that almost 468 million women aged between 15 -49 years (30% of all women) are thought to be anemic and at least half of them are as a result of iron deficiency. Majority are Africans (48- 57%) and south eastern Asians are of the greater numbers( 182 million women of reproductive age and 18 million expectant mothers). The prevalence of anemia in teenagers (15–19 years) can be even higher and exceeds 60% in Ghana, Mali and Senegal.

Similarly 12% of the same age category were reported to be thin (BMI less than 18.5kg/m2 ), 9% are mildly thin and 3% are moderately or severely thin. About one in every five women (19%)are overweight or obese. 38% of children aged 6 to 59 months and 36% of women aged 15 to 49 years were reported to have vitamin A deficiency (UDHS 2011). Therefore malnutrition which is associated with a lower physical capacity and increased susceptibility to infections, needs to be tackled before women become pregnant in order to reduce the risks of poor maternal health and low birth weight babies.
Though maternal nutrition during pregnancy is so important in reducing maternal and infant mortality which are targeted in achieving the millennium development goal, very few studies have been done on knowledge of malnutrition among women attending antenatal clinic in st. Joseph hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha local government area, Anambra state. As a result, there is lack of comprehensive information regarding nutritional knowledge and factors associated with this condition. Therefore the purpose of this study is to identify factors that contribute to malnutrition among pregnant women in a bid to cover the knowledge and information gap.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Malnutrition is still highly prevalent with 12% of women being undernourished or thin (BMI less than 18.5), 64% of pregnant women and 53% of lactating women being anemic and 18.6% of pregnant women and 17.3% of lactating mothers having Vitamin A deficiency (demographic and health survey 2008). Poor nutrition amongst women reduces physical development thus leading to miscarriages, low birth weight or worse still, still births, perinatal deaths and irreversible brain damage to the unborn child. As a result this hurts development in terms of education and productivity. Therefore drastic measures need to be taken into account in-order to address this problem. Hence the purpose of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending ANC in a bid to address this issue.

WHO guidelines together with MOH recommends at least 4 ANC visits to every pregnant and the 1st visit should be made within the 1st trimester. However, only 48% of women in Uganda make these visits (UDHS 2011). The major objective of ANC visits is to detect anemia, infections and other health problems associated with pregnancy including malnutrition. In addition, the government of Uganda has tried to combat maternal malnutrition through introduction of the minimum health care package which also supports promotion of ANC, supplementation with iron and folic acid, treatment and control of helminths infestations, diet diversification in-order to increase dietary iron intake.
In-spite of these efforts, majority of the mothers still don’t have access to these services or even information. This is evidenced by the fact that only 1 in 3 mothers receive postpartum vitamin A supplementation, only 47% of mothers attend 4 or more ANC visits, less than 1% of mothers follow the recommended dose of 90 + IFA (Iron Folic Acid) supplementation and only 60% of pregnant women take their iron supplements (Demographic and health survey 2008).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the knowledge of malnutrition among women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State. Specific Objectives;

  1. To identify the knowledge of prevalence of malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State.
  2. To determine the knowledge of demographic factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State.
  3. To identify the knowledge of socio-economic factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State
  4. To identify the knowledge of personal related factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State.

1.4 Research Questions

This study answered the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State?
  2. What are the demographic factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State?
  3. What are the socio-economic factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State?
  4. What are the personal related factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • Ho: There are no personal related factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State
  • Hi: There are personal related factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State

1.6 Significance of the Study

It was important to undertake this study because of the numerous benefits to has offered for improving good nutrition among children. The study provides information on prevalence and associated risk factors of child malnutrition in Ewoyi community . It has helped in identifying factors that are barriers to good nutrition practice, and translate each guideline into specific recommendations that health care providers, mothers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and agencies such as Ministry of Health (MoH) and Nigeria Health Service (NHS) needs to develop the right measures of improving and eradicating malnutrition among children. The information provided in this study would also be used in planning interventions concerning malnutrition, particularly child malnutrition.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study had some limitations, which include some of the following. The study will be a cross- sectional study so it was difficult to examine any potential temporal relationships or causal associations. In addition, hygiene practices were determined based on self-reported data from the caregivers, as well as other sanitation factors and socio-economic variables like level of income. Most mothers did not carry along their record to health chart book, hence it was difficult confirming the immunization status of the child.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered problems during the course of carrying out this research; such problems were as a result of selected respondents who refused to accept and participate and also encountered difficulty in acquiring relevant materials and items. The attitude of selected subjects to fill the questionnaire to time so as not to delay the result of the research also posed a problem. However, the researcher appealed to the participants through persuasive means.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Malnutrition

Malnutrition refers to the situation where by an individual feeds on unbalanced diet in which some are in excess, lacking or in wrong proportion.

This can be determined by measuring one’s body mass index where by <18.5 means Underweight, 18.5 – 24.9 –Healthy, 25 – 29.9 – Overweight and ≥ 30 means Obese.

Antenatal Clinic

This is a place where expectant/ pregnant women go to receive medical checkups, screening, diagnosis and treatment of various conditions plus health education and advice in preparation for safe delivery.

Trimester.

This is a three month division of a pregnancy. The first three months( 1-3 months) being termed as 1st trimester, the second three months (4-6 months) meaning the 2nd trimester and the last three months( 7-9 months) called the 3rd trimester.

Lactation

This is a process of feeding the baby after birth through breast milk.

Parity

This means the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable child (24 or 28 weeks of gestation) regardless of whether the born child is alive or stillbirth.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study findings revealed that almost half of the pregnant women were malnourished. The observed level of malnutrition could be as result of various factors ranging from policy issues to immediate household conditions to underlying community and cultural situations. Such may include, household food insecurity (mainly related to poor access to the range of foods needed for a diversified diet); and poor access to health care and a healthy environment where pregnant women do not live in a healthy environment with good access to toilets and other sanitation services, a reliable safe water supply, and effective health facilities and services, including nutrition services such as micronutrient supplementation and nutrition education.


5.2 Conclusion

This study was aimed to assess the factors contributing to malnutrition among pregnant women attending ANC in St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State.

It found out that the prevalence of malnutrition was slightly high as 45.38% were malnourished. Of these, 19.41%, 15.82% and 10.15% were underweight, overweight and obese respectively. Under social demographic factors, Malnutrition was associated with women aged more than 30 years and those with Christian faith.

The personal related factors indicated that, lack of a balanced diet, parity more than 4 and having food taboos was also associated with malnutrition.


5.3 Recommendations

  1. Malnutrition program should be strengthened and expanded by Ministry of Health.
  2. Mothers should be taught very nutritious meals to introduce as complementary meals when exclusive breast-feeding is stopped (after 6 months).
  3. Measures should be put in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the community by the Ministry of Gender, Women and Social Protection.
  4. Good source of water by Nigeria Water Company should be made available to all homes.
  5. Caregivers should be educated on the need to wash their hand with clean water and soap before preparing food, cleaning the child and after toilet Government should make it a policy for all homes to have good toilet facilities.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Knowledge Of Malnutrition Among Women Attending Antenatal Clinic In St. Joseph Hospital Adazi-Nnukwu, Anaocha Local Government Area, Anambra State

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.