Knowledge Attitude And Acceptance Of Covid 19 Vaccine

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Knowledge Attitude And Acceptance Of Covid 19 Vaccine


Abstract


The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, with the United States being highly affected. A vaccine provides the best hope for a permanent solution to controlling the pandemic. Several coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines are currently in human trials. However, to be effective, a vaccine must be accepted and used by a large majority of the population. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and its predictors in addition to the attitudes towards these vaccines among public. This study did an online survey, were collected from individuals aged 19 years or older as representative surveys to determine potential acceptance rates and factors influencing acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Results revealed that two-thirds of respondents were at least moderately worried about a widespread COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents reporting higher levels of trust in information from government sources were more likely to accept a vaccine and take their employer’s advice to do so. Systematic interventions are required by public health authorities to reduce the levels of vaccines’ hesitancy and improve their acceptance. These results and specifically the low rate of acceptability is alarming to public health authorities and should stir further studies on the root causes and the need of awareness campaigns. These interventions should take the form of reviving the trust in national health authorities and structured awareness campaigns that offer transparent information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and the technology that was utilized in their production.


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Overview of Covid-19 Vaccine
  • 2.3 Overview of Corona Virus
  • 2.4 The Health Sector Amid Covid
  • 2.5 Safety Measures Against Covid 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Population
  • 3.3 Research Instrument
  • 3.4 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Vaccines are a key strategy to stop the escalation of the COVID19 pandemic. As of April 8, 2020, there were more than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates being developed (Pogue et al 2020). This vaccine development is proceeding at a fast pace; prior to March 30, 2020, two vaccine candidates had entered Phase 1 clinical trials (Lurie et al 2020) while on April 9, five vaccine candidates in total were in Phase 1 clinical trials (Thanh Le et al 2020). Understanding vaccine acceptance is important, given the large population and because it has relatively high vaccine hesitancy for existing vaccines and relatively low vaccination coverage (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al 2019). Characterizing how vaccine efficacy could impact acceptance is also important, given that actual or perceived vaccine efficacy could be relatively low.

The high usage of news media is concerning given the potential for alarming, sensationalist portrayals of the pandemic (Klemm et al 2016). In addition, myths, rumors and misinformation can quickly spread online, particularly via social media (Vosoughi et al 2018). Reliance on social media might have contributed to uncertainty around COVID- 19, for example, about whether people have natural immunity and whether specific home remedies (garlic, vitamins, and rinsing noses with saline) help protect against coronavirus. It may also explain some uncertainty around whether the virus was human-made and deliberately released. Uncertainty and rapidly changing information may have contributed to increased worry about the virus (Han et al 2006). These findings speak to the importance of distributing accurate health information about COVID-19 through a variety of sources (news, social media, and government websites) to reach the general population and correct misinformation.

The effect of media exposure may be related to the provision of important health information about the pandemic. Although media exposure early in the outbreak appears to have facilitated health- protective behaviors, media fatigue— where people become desensitized to ongoing messaging—may reduce this effect as the pandemic continues (Collinson et al 2015). Repeated media exposure may also lead to heightened stress and anxiety, which can have longer- term health effects, as well as contributing to excessive or misplaced health- protective behaviors such as presenting for diagnostic testing when actual risk of exposure is low (Garfin et al 2020).

Emerging evidence from groups with widespread testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus indicates that between 2 and 8 out of every 10 infections may be asymptomatic (Mizumoto et al 2020; Nishiura et al 2020). Despite being asymptomatic, those infected are still able to transmit the virus to others (Bai et al 2020; Zou et al 2020). In addition, people appear to be infectious and asymptomatic during the incubation period (Lauer et al 2020). People commonly rely on symptoms to indicate illness and assume that the absence of symptoms means they are well (Diefenbach & Leventhal 1996). Such assumptions in the COVID-19 pandemic could have serious consequences, in terms of both community transmission and reduced health-protective behaviors. Therefore, public health communication campaigns about COVID-19 need to address these misconceptions.

There is an evident uncertainty clouding the COVID-19 vaccines. Firstly, the new mRNA-based vaccines as a novel technology could be received with some skepticism since no prior experience or successes with such approach have been reported in the past. Also, the speed of vaccine development and registration in less than a year may have mediated a role in lowering the acceptance level. Another global phenomenon that negatively contributed to such a low level is the numerous campaigns launched by anti- vaccinationists fueled by the new technology and short span of vaccine development. Such campaigns on social media with fabricated, false, and sometimes misleading translations feed the conspiracy beliefs of some people. Some factors that are specific to the country and the region could also play a role in this. For example, there is a sector of the public who had their trust shaken in local authorities and/or disapprove the overall handling of the pandemic. Some people expresses their frustration as many decisions could be unwelcomed, disproportional with the pandemic status, not justified or backed with science.

COVID-19 pandemic as with other previous pandemics is associated with feelings of fears, anxiety, and worries (Blakey & Abramowitz 2017; Wheaton et al 2012). However, it is unique in terms that people are not worried only about getting infected or transmit the disease to others (Blakey & Abramowitz 2017), but they suffered societal and economic concerns due to the measures that were undertaken by the governments to confine the pandemic and stopping the human- human transmission of the disease (Nicola et al 2020). These measures include enforcement of curfews and lockdowns (the largest throughout history), social distancing and self-isolation, schools and universities closures, borders’ shutdowns, travel restrictions, and quarantine (Mannan & Farhana 2020; Nicola et al 2020).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Investigations into public attitudes during the pandemic have revealed details on vaccine and recipient features that are likely to influence eventual uptake. Kreps et al. reported that increased efficacy and duration of protection, with decreased incidence of major adverse effects and full FDA approval, appear to increase willingness of Americans to receive the vaccine against COVID-19 [10]. Other published surveys suggest recipient factors that decrease willingness to accept a vaccine include younger age, minority ethnic groups, not being a healthcare worker and lower individual perceived risk [11]. Of note, individuals in the UK with a pre-existing respiratory condition reported an 86% acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine that was correlated with increased perception of personal morbidity [12]. The development of vaccines in record time, release under emergency use authorization (EUA) rather than full FDA approval, perceived political interference and superficial safety reviews, are important causes for skepticism [13]. With respect to healthcare workers specifically, a survey conducted on patient-facing members of the Association of Hong Kong Nursing Staff in the early months of the pandemic reported just 40% acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine [14]. More recently a large, multicenter survey of healthcare workers conducted between October and November 2020 in midwest and southwest states showed striking uncertainty in the months leading up to the release of preliminary safety data, with only 36% of respondents immediately accepting, and 56% undecided [15]. Importantly, prior reports in the healthcare setting have failed to include an adequately diverse sample population, which has resulted so far in limited data on between ethnic group analyses. This is concerning as data from diverse, public surveys [7,16] identify this as a principal discriminator of vaccine acceptance and hesitance


1.3 Research Objectives

The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To assess the level of general knowledge of COVID-19 in Nigeria
  2. To determine knowledge of symptoms and transmission in Nigeria
  3. To determine the attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of general knowledge of COVID-19 in Nigeria?
  2. What is the knowledge of symptoms and transmission in Nigeria?
  3. What is the attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis

HO1: There is no significant relationship between knowledge, attitude and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria


1.6 Significance of the Study

The occurrence of the novel corona virus (COVID-19) has caused lots of measures to be out in place, especially for the health workers and related professionals, hence the need to assess knowledge, attitude and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. This study will be of great significance to the Health workers, the healthcare profession and the society. The findings from this study will benefit the Health workers by providing this information needed to improve and enhance quality care for themselves in light of the novel corona virus as well as improve their attitudes towards safety measures and other precautionary measures against COVID-19. This will also enlighten the educators, health professionals, counselors and work practice employers on how to further improve the attitude. Lastly, the study will also contribute to the existing literature on COVID 19 and serve as an empirical literature for future studies.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Attitude:

Refers to the perception towards COVID-19 vaccine.

Knowledge:

Refers to the level of awareness towards COVID-19 and the vaccine.

Vaccine:

Are considered the best method to control rapidly spreading infectious diseases.


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The determinants of vaccine uptake across the globe show strong consistency, with being male or having fewer years of education associated with decreased chances of uptake. Positive information- seeking behaviours and trusting health- care workers more than other sources such as one’s social circle for medical and health advice were associated with increased chances of uptake. Results from our survey can inform the need for further research, to explore why certain countries might experience sudden increases or decreases in confidence. We have highlighted countries with marked decreases in percentages reporting that they strongly agree that vaccines are safe and countries with significant increases in those strongly disagreeing that vaccines are safe. These countries are candidates for more nuanced follow-up surveys to understand the precise drivers of confidence and the link between confidence and uptake.

There is a study limitation to note. As not all surveys used have consistent responses, we have made a key assumption that, presented with different options between the extreme categories of “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree” (which are consistent across all surveys), respondents with the strongest sentiment will fall into one of these extreme groups regardless of additional categories. While this approach probably allows meaningful comparison across surveys—although it needs testing for validation—it pools vaccination beliefs among those without the strongest beliefs, masking potentially key information. Finally, owing to low case counts of respondents who have not had their children vaccinated and the varying religious groups across countries, religious groups were recoded into the largest and minority groups to extract results from our regression analysis. In many settings, more nuanced regression findings are possible, and a comprehensive regression analysis could reveal more informative country-specific determinants of vaccine uptake.


5.2 Recommendations

Addressing the public concerns, raising awareness about COVID-19 vaccination as a disease-control method, addressing conspiracy theories, reducing hesitation toward vaccination, and increasing efforts toward to provide vaccines in countries with limited resources to prevent further deterioration of general public health due to COVID-19 is recommended.


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